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Zika virus is mainly transmitted by mosquito bites and sexual contact, though vertical transmission of ZIKV has also been reported in humans. However, it is also unknown if ZIKV can be spread by aerosol routes. In vitro and in vivo, we found that aerosolized ZIKV is 100% infectious in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that aerosolized ZIKV can cause systemic infection and induce both innate and adaptive immune responses in guinea pigs, emphasizing the possibility of ZIKV transmission via aerosols.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2122577
As key events accounting for Congenital Zika Syndrome's cell death and neurological abnormalities, research has pointed to oxidative stress in astrocytes, as well as dysregulations of neural cell proliferation and cell cycle. Copper deficiency has been shown to cause similar symptoms in other pathologies, and copper homeostasis disturbances have already been identified in viral infections. Here, we investigated copper homeostasis imbalance as a factor that may contribute to the cytotoxic effects of ZIKV infection in astrocytes. We also observed the deposition of copper chaperones and the reduction of the copper importer protein CTR1. Either measuring micronutrient levels and the use of copper chelators in pregnant women susceptible to ZIKV infection could be promising steps to handle new cases of congenital ZIKV syndrome.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.30323
Despite the various research attempts pointing to the Zika virus treatment drug discovery program, no antiviral drugs or vaccines have been found yet. Due to increasing global travel, the mosquito vector and ZIKV infection transmission is predicted to rise globally. It makes an NS3-Hel protein an attractive target for developing novel drugs for ZIKV therapy. The simulation results reveal dynamic stability among protein and ligand complexes, and the proteins remain relatively unchanged at the simulation site, with dynamic stability among protein and ligand complexes.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11030-022-10522-5
Zika virus is a significant public health issue, and there is no vaccine or medication available for the prevention or treatment of ZIKV. We developed a novel inhibitor that inhibits the NS2B/NS3 protease with a higher potency than the fragment and a similar IC50 to the tetrapeptide as a result of the tetrapeptide's due to the tetrapeptide's intricate binding methods.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2022.106109
Zika virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the genus Flavivirus, which has a phylogenetic association with spondweni virus. We found natural antiviral compounds isolated from plant sources and tested against the Zika virus with biosafety in NS3. Using AutoDock Vina software, we carried out molecular docking for the target NS3 helicase against the selected 25 phytochemicals.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/2044577
Sexual transmission has the ability to alter the epidemiology and geographic distribution of ZIKV relative to mosquito-borne transmission, as well as produce specific clinical signs, so it is important to understand the host systems that regulate susceptibility to sexually transmitted ZIKV. Following subcutaneous inoculation, ZIKV replicates poorly in wild-type mice, so the majority ZIKV pathogenesis studies use mice lacking type I interferon signaling. Despite the fact that these mice do not support ZIKV replication by other methods, we found that ZIKV is able to reproduce in the vaginas of wild-type mice, we find that the vaginas of wild-type mice are particularly vulnerable to ZIKV infection. Understanding how progesterone mediates susceptibility to ZIKV vaginal infection may provide insight into host mechanisms that influence susceptibility to a variety of sexually transmitted pathogens.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.01219-22
Zika virus, a mosquito-borne fluvivirus that appeared in the Pacific islands in 2007 and then stook to the Americas in 2015. Despite widespread efforts, no such drug or vaccine against ZIKV infection is available to date. Two peptides isolated from claudin-7 and claudin-1's N-terminal sequences, named CL7. 1 and CL1. 1, respectively, were found to inhibit ZIKV infection in a panel of human cell lines, which inhibited ZIKV infection in this study. We established that these peptides blocked the ZIKV E-mediated membrane fusion by cell-to-cell fusion assays using cell-to-cell fusion assays. An examination of the peptide amphipathicity of CL1. 1 and CL7. 1 highlighted the importance of the peptide amphipathicity. CL1. 1 altered the ultrastructure of the viral particles most likely by binding the virus lipid envelope, according to Electron microscopic analysis. CL1. 1 may also interact with the E protein, near its stem region, according to In silico docking simulations. Overall, our results showed that claudin-derived peptide inhibition may be related to simultaneous interactions with the E protein and the viral lipid envelope. We discovered that CL1. 1 also blocked infection by yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses, but not by HIV-1 or SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE Zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquito bites that have spread to the Pacific Islands and the Americas over the last decade. ZIKV is a significant public health issue in areas of endemicity, but there is currently no such antiviral drug or vaccine available. Two antiviral peptides derived from claudin-7 and claudin-1 sequences were found by N-terminal sequences, with the former being the most effective.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.02989-22
The Zika virus NS4B protein, a membranotropic multifunctional protein, is a membranotropic multifunctional protein. We have investigated the structural dynamics of full-length ZIKV NS4B protein in this paper by 3D structure models incorporating molecular dynamics simulations and experimental methods. In addition, we have examined the NS4B proteins C-terminal regions of four other flaviviruses viz. In comparison to ZIKV NS4B, there are significant differences observed in the conformations of other flavivirus NS4B C-terminal regions. In conclusion, we have developed a ZIKV NS4B protein model demonstrating its putative topology, which is made up of various membrane-spanning and non-membranous regions.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2022.08.005
Here, we used flow cytometry to produce a Zika detection assay using recombinant Zika envelope protein. Anti-Zika E antibodies were found in Zika-infected patients, Zika-infected mice, and mice immunized with recombinant Zika E antibodies by a method that was not. We discuss the development of the first flow cytometry-based diagnostic assay that can be used for Zika detection. Zika-infected patients' rapid turnaround time and the ability to detect antibodies can be used to analyze Zika-infected patients's diagnostic accuracy.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.4149/av_2022_307
We tested the possibility that CD24 expression enabled ZIKV replication by blocking of the antiviral response. CD24-low cells with exogenously added type I interferon had elevated levels of antiviral genes and activity against two IFN-I-sensitive viruses, as compared to SK-N-AS cells with ectopic CD24 expression. Our findings show that CD24 expression in neuroblastoma cells represses intracellular antiviral pathways, supporting the belief that CD24 may be a novel biomarker in cancer cells for susceptibility to oncolytic viruses.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081735
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