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Here we examine the methodological and statistical feasibility of a congenital ZIKV exposure macaque device for finding infant neurobehavior and brain abnormalities that may be responsible for neurodevelopmental deficits. In the first trimester, we inoculated five pregnant macaques with ZIKV and mock-inoculated one macaque. To find statistically significant differences in at least half of the infant exam results, we estimated sample sizes needed to determine differences between groups and organizations, but we found that future studies assessing brain region volumes, retinal structure, hearing, and visual pathway function needed a sample size of 14 animals per group.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235877
ZIKV is primarily distributed by mosquito bites and sexual contact, though vertical transmission of ZIKV has also been detected in humans. However, it is also unknown if ZIKV can be transported by aerosol routes. In vitro and in vivo, we found that aerosolized ZIKV is completely infectious in vitro and in vivo. Our findings show that aerosolized ZIKV can cause systemic infection and promote both innate and adaptive immune responses in guinea pigs, leading to both innate and adaptive immune responses in guinea pigs, highlighting the possibility of ZIKV transmission by aerosols.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2122577
Brazil had the country with the largest Zika virus infection rate in the Americas during the 2015–2016 epidemic. During ultrasound scans with fetus anomalies, twenty-nine percent of pregnant women positive for ZIKV revealed fetus anomalies. The differences in allele and/or genotype frequencies for each SNP investigated among ZIKV-transmitting and non-transmitting mothers, among ZIKV-transmitting and non-infected mothers, and between ZIKV-infected and non-infected mothers and non-infected children were compared to the Mid-P exact test or Yates-u2019 corrections were compared to the Mid-P exact test or Yates'u2013 compared to the difference between ZIKV-Ma genotype genotypes in allele and transmitting and transmitting and transmitting and transmitting mothers and transmission and transmitting parents and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-infected and non-inf LILRB1_rs16985478 A / A / T and LILRB1_rs46985478 A / A In ZIKV-transmitting and non-transmitting mothers and ZIKV-infected and non-infected children, and ZIKV-infected and non-infected children, tetivity and non-infected children, ZIKV-infected and ZIKV-M /A rs16985478 A /A rs rs16985478 A /A t rs16985478 T rs 16985478 T /T rste T rs16985478 A te T rs16985478 A b1_rs16985478 A rs16985448547846854545854786485498544854784T /A /T /A /T /A Polymorphic sites in the LILRB1 and HLA-G genes may be associated with mother-to-child ZIKV transmission in the womb, according to the latest analysis, although LILRB2 may have protection against ZIKV transmission in the womb in a population from Brazil's south and southeast.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44070191
The Zika virus is a Flavivirus that is spread to humans mainly by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. However, both Aedes species have a positive epidemiological presence in Central Africa, where Ae is located. A ZIKV strain isolated in West Africa had experimentally infected with albopictus from various ecological environments in Central Africa's Central African areas. ZIKV can be distributed by albopictus and can even function as active Zika vectors in Central Africa. These results may help in a better understanding of ZIKV's epidemiological transmission in Central Africa and the establishment of a robust program to avoid major ZIKV outbreaks in the area.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008163
Abstract Background: The recognition of viral infection by the host's inherent antiviral immune system promotes the production of the type I interferon and proinflammatory signaling pathways. Results Here we have discovered that the TRIM22 has been highly restricted both transcriptionally and translationally as a result of Zika virus infection. From mild to severe signs of human ZIKV infection, including abnormal fetal brain growth, are associated with a variety of medical disorders. Overexpression of TRIM22 protein in ZIKV growth stifled ZIKV growth, while deletion of TRIM22 in host cells raised ZIKV infectivity. TRIM22, a fully integrated E3 ubiquitin ligase, promoted the ubiquitination and degradation of ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 and nonstructural protein 3. In addition, we discovered that TRIM22 also blocked other fluvivirus infections, including dengue virus and yellow fever virus. Conclusion (in conclusion): TRIM22 is an ISG that plays a key role in host protection against flaviviruses by binding and degradation of the NS1 and NS3 proteins.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13578-022-00872-w
Zika virus, a mosquito-borne fluvivirus that caused major public health issues in French Polynesia and South America, caused significant public health concern in French Polynesia and South America. ZIKV transmission in two modes are both vector-borne and non-vector borne modes of transmission. Interferons and natural killer cells mediate ZIKV infection, while adaptive immune responses are mediated by CD8 + T cells, Th1 cells, and neutralizing antibodies. Infants, however, who are exposed to ZIKV are congenitically have congenital Zika syndrome. This paper synthesised several published studies focusing on the ocular manifestations of ZIKV, antiviral immune responses to ZIKV infection, and the origins of ocular abnormalities in people with ZIKV infection. This report summarizes the latest available information on ZIKV's viral immunology, the host's immune defense system, pathological pathways, and other aspects of ZIKV infection, as well as anterior and posterior segment results related to ZIKV infection.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7060106
Zika virus, a zoonotic, dermatopathogenic, and mosquito-borne fluvivirus is a mosquito-borne fluvivirus. Several attempts to produce ZIKV vaccines are currently underway. The envelope protein, which is the primary goal of neutralizing antibodies, is the primary target of most vaccination programs against flavivirus infections. In humans, Insect-cell derived, recombinantly expressed variants of E from the flaviviruses West Nile and Dengue virus have undergone clinical trials. Because of the structural similarity of flaviviruses, cross-reactive antibodies are triggered by flavivirus antigens and have been attributed to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent infection enhancement. In and near the Florida, we investigated the possibility that recombinant E proteins of ZIKV might cause ADE in infections with similar flaviviruses. These findings show that modified versions of the E protein may lead to ZIKV and other flavivirus vaccines with higher safety profiles.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040603
Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that is mainly distributed by blood-sucking mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. This article explores the latest findings concerning ZIKV's longevity and human-to-human sexual transmission, with a focus on the male reproductive system and human-to-human sexual transmission.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030066
Although the Zika virus 2014–u20132017 pandemic has passed, there is still active transmission. The virus can be spread vertically from mother to offspring, in addition to horizontal transmission to humans. We developed an experimental scheme that quantifies ZIKV in individual progeny and larvae to determine the roles of extrinsic incubation time and gonotrophic cycle. We determined VT rate, filial infection rate, and viral load per infected larvae at 10 days post oral infection on the second gonotrophic cycle and at 17 d. p. i.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050366
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