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Although the majority of prior work examines how to coordinate and monitor such multi-robot systems, these UAV teams have not been given the ability to reason about a fire's promise of service over a time horizon. Motivated by the challenge of aerial wildfire monitoring, we have created a predictive framework that facilitates collaboration among multi-UAV teams toward joint field coverage and fire tracking with probabilistic success promise. With time-extended coordination in safety-critical situations, UAVs can infer the latent fire propagation dynamics for time-extended coordination in safety-critical situations. To account for realistic robot dynamics and limitations, we evaluate our simulation method and deliver demonstrations of the proposed framework on a physical multi-robot testbed.
Millions of long distance migratory birds migrate from their overwintering grounds across North America to breeding in N. America's ABRs. We built an autonomous acoustic monitoring network to see how time since wildfire influences the spatiotemporal patterns, phenology, and habitat occupancy of migratory birds at the regional level, as part of a larger NSF-funded Navigating the New Arctic study. We used two years of hourly soundscape recordings made in avian migration and breeding habitats along a boreal fire chronology in the Yukon Territory, which was between March October and 2020. We found that more birds used burned relative to unburned sites, and that this pattern was associated with the burned locations' having significantly more shrub growth, smaller spruce trees, and more dead trees relative to the unburned site. We found that location differences in the start of avian migration in both spring and fall was influenced by differences in canopy cover, albedo, and time since fire. Legacy effects of boreal wildlfire appear to be more suitable physical and nutritional resources, with different seasons for the birds, on a multi-decadal time scale and relative to unburned boreal stands.
The five fires we investigated for this report mapped into different regions of the parameter space with limited overlap, according to plots of the data in the two-dimensional space outlined by the second order polynomials' fit parameters. These results reveal for the soluble absorption spectra, in particular, that these spectra may reveal new insight into the cyanolytic compounds in the smoke aerosols collected from the Williams Flats, Nethker, Little Bear, Castle, and the 204 Cow fires, providing new insight into the difference chromophores of the light absorbent organic compounds in the soluble absorption spectra.
This study uses available satellite remote sensing imagery to map cyanoHABS in large lakes and reservoirs throughout California to find a link to wildfire occurrence images from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometers and Sentinel 3-Ocean Land Cover Imager for the time period 2002-2012 and 2016 - 2020. Previous studies divided CA into three areas and found median CI values for 2002-2012 had a positive monotonic trend, but Northern CA had a higher success than the other two. To better understand the relationship with the wildfire regime, the association of the CyanoHAB spatial extent, frequency, duration, and CI maximum was documented alongside the median CI level. A new insight into wildfires' role on water quality in California's climate range and various ecosystems may be able to use similar ecoregions around the world where wildfire and water scarcity risk is high.
Despite a general knowledge of fire-flood cycles that result in debris flows, few studies explore the long-term impacts of wildfires on precipitation-triggered landslide risk. Limited field and experimental evidence shows that soil water repellency induced by severe fires persists longer than repellency caused by low-to-moderate fires, and landslides have been reported in areas that burned several years prior to slope failure. We therefore conclude that severe fires have more pronounced effects on the landslide hazard caused by precipitation. We use panel regression to quantify the effect of wildfire severity on the sensitivity of landslide hazard's to shifts in precipitation accumulation, instead of relying on a distributed lag model to investigate the longevity of these post-fire effects. Burn scars persist across these slopes and precipitation gradients, allowing us to determine an average effect of burn severity on precipitation-triggered landslide risk.
With increasing wildfire threat in the western United States, understanding watershed-scale wildfire impacts on streamflow and their controls is critical. Since burned landscapes are highly mobile and difficult to track, existing watershed-scale field data is extremely lacking. Here, we will concentrate on the Grizzly Creek Fire, which scorched 132 km2 and affected multiple tributary watersheds of the Colorado River through Glenwood Canyon, CO. Flooding has affected critical infrastructure within the canyon, including the I-70 highway and railroad corridors, Shoshone hydroelectric power plant, and municipal water supply. Following fire in five burned watersheds and two contiguous unburned watersheds, Rainfall and streamflow monitoring equipment was installed immediately following fire. Identified connections between watershed, burn characteristics, and streamflow responses at the Grizzly Creek Fire will inform local fire prevention and response plans, as well as future research describing post-wildfire streamflow response patterns across western watersheds.
For several communities, the frequency and severity of wildfires is on the rise, as well as the expansion of values at risk into steeplands, are both increasing. For example, we typically lack empirical evidence to inform predictions of the post-fire landscape response to rainfall, as rapidly evolving fire regimes have ignited high-severity wildfires into climate zones and landscapes for which we generally do not have empirical evidence to support predictions of the post-fire landscape response to rainfall. We're focusing on fires in steep landscapes, with elevated to moderate soil burn severity, that have been subjected to a one-year recurrence interval in the first two years following the fire. In the Transverse Ranges of southern California, erosion patterns were ubiquitous and consistent with a debris-flow interpretation, although transitioning to central and northern California erosion features were typically smaller in number, less frequent, and more consistent with features found after fluvial scour in steep channel networks as opposed to catastrophic debris flows.
The Wyoming Cloud Lidars were sent onboard the University of Wyoming King Air and NSF/NCAR C-130 research aircraft for the Biomass Burning Flux Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols field campaign and the Western Wildfire Experiments for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol absorption, and Nitrogen field campaign during the summer of 2018. Between 2-5 kilometers, where the majority of the wildfire smoke originated, the WCL observed marginally less thin smoke than dense smoke due to smoke spreading between 2-5 kilometers. Extinction coefficients in dense smoke were 2-10 times higher than those in dense air, and dense smoke had a higher depolarization ratio, which was associated with irregular aerosol particles. The reconstructed vertical structures of 7 smoke plumes from consecutive WCL transects show the consistent and differing vertical structures in the fire plumes, which are supported by in situ measurements at various heights. The fire plumes had specific macrophysical and microphysical characteristics, which were closely related to plume transport, fire intensity, and thermodynamic structure in the boundary layer. Plumes that extended upward out of the boundary layer reached a higher plume level around 5. 5 kilometers. The vertical cross sections of the smoke plume from various locations along the wind give the opportunity to investigate both the smoke transport and the aerosol evolution in the same fire plume. Both BB-FLUX and WE-CAN's smoke plume vertical structures will be measured and combined to produce both spatial and temporal variations for the smoke plumes from the Western United States wildfires, with temporal variations as well as temporal.
The scientific community has agreed that current global warming trends may be correlated with rising forest fire size, frequency, and severity in the western United States. This research aims to determine how wildfire events resulting from various climate change scenarios influence hydrograph's shape and timing, as well as total water budgets of high mountain watersheds. Both the near-term and distant future scenarios under RCP 4. 5 and 8. 5 climate change scenarios, a Distributed Hydrologic Soil Vegetation Model is used to predict flows due to changes in land cover and hydrologic conditions for several wildfire events. For a high-altitude fire event at a high elevation, the results of the survey may indicate an increase in peak flow and a decrease in low flow. Just after the fire season, we may also notice an early peak and decrease in water volume in the annual water budget.
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