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West Nile Virus - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 24 January 2023

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Evaluation of an open forecasting challenge to assess skill of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease prediction

Overview in the continental United States The most common cause of mosquito-borne disease is the West Nile virus. On the other hand, no study has been done to compare the strengths and weaknesses of WNV disease forecasting methods on a national basis. To determine the status of WNV neuroinvasive disease forecast and identify avenues for improvement, we used forecasts submitted to the 2020 WNV Forecasting Challenge, an open challenge sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to determine the state of WNV neuroinvasive disease prediction and prevention. Methods We did a multi-model comparative review of probabilistic forecasts submitted by 15 teams in annual WNND cases in U. S. counties for 2020, determining forecast reliability, calibration, and discriminatory force. We also used regression analysis to determine modeling techniques and contextual factors that were associated with forecast competence. Conclusions - Historical WNND cases were good predictors of future cases, but there was no increase in skill achieved by models that included other factors.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05630-y


A West Nile virus nonlocal model with free boundaries and seasonal succession

The generalized eigenvalues of both spatially dependant and nonlocal WNv models with seasonal successions are investigated and applied to see if the spreading or disappearance occurs. Our findings extend those for the case of nonlocal diffusion but no free boundary or those for the situation with no free boundary but local diffusion, respectively. Moreover, the initial infection duration, the initial infection severity, and the spreading capability to new areas all play important roles in the time-dependent solutions' long-lived behaviors.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00285-022-01860-x


Human biting mosquitoes and implications for West Nile virus transmission

In areas with dedicated mosquito control services, surveillance techniques often rely on frequent testing of mosquitoes collected in a network of gravid traps and CO_2-baited light traps. Methods This research uses an alternative mosquito collection technique, the human landing catch, to compare sampling of potential WNV vectors between potential trapping techniques to traditional trapping methods. At one of five study sites in suburban Chicago, Illinois, for two summers, human collectors observed one leg for 15 minutes at crepuscular times at one of five study sites. The number of individual Culex specimens obtained per trapping effort, GTs, and LTs was > 7. 5-fold higher than HLC efforts. This report highlights the importance of the HLC collection technique as a complementary tool for monitoring and aid in WNV vector species identification.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05603-1


Protocol to Study West Nile Virus Infection in Brain Slices In Vitro

Here, we discuss the procedure of extracting ex vivo slice culture from mouse cerebellum mice and the study of the effects of West Nile virus infection on cerebellar cells.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2760-0_10


Protocol of Detection of West Nile Virus in Clinical Samples

Despite the widespread prevalence of WNV-related clinical disease syndromes, many of the signs related to WNV are nonspecific at the time of presentation; therefore, choosing the right diagnostic device is critical to not only determine the true burden of disease but also provide pathogen-directed interventions for WNV-infected patients.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2760-0_12


Quantification of West Nile Virus by Plaque-Forming Assay

The number of plaques generated can be the initial number of the infectious viral particles present in the sample and therefore can be expressed as plaque-forming units in a volume of the sample, according to the sample's statistical results. We offer a step-by-step guide to performing a plaque-forming assay to determine the titer of West Nile virus in a cell culture medium that can also be modified to other lytic viruses of eukaryotic cells.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2760-0_2


Safety Procedures to Work with West Nile Virus in Biosafety Level 3 Facilities

West Nile virus can cause severe and often fatal disease, but there are no drugs or devices to treat these conditions. While recent updates in U. S. guidelines indicate that WNV can be treated at a lower biosafety level due to its endemicity in the United States and generally mild signs, some studies have found that the agent should be used at biosafety level 3.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2760-0_18


Introduction to West Nile Virus

The Flaviviridae family's mosquito-borne, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus is a mosquito-borne, single-stranded virus carrying the Flaviviridae virus. Since WNV's infected mosquito bite, it reproduces in a variety of human cell types and producess a viremia. Although the majority of infected people are asymptomatic, some individuals with mild fever to severe neurological disease with high morbidity and mortality indicate a high incidence of asymptomatic illness. Since arriving in the United States in 1999, WNV has been the most common mosquito-borne virus in North America.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2760-0_1


Isolation of Exosomes or Extracellular Vesicles from West Nile Virus-Infected N2a Cells, Primary Cortical Neurons, and Brain Tissues

We'll explore specific steps to isolate exosomes or extracellular vesicles from mouse and human N2a cells, primary cultures of murine cortical neurons, and mouse brain tissue in this chapter. The extraction of exosomes/EVs from N2a cells and cortical neurons is described by two different methods, differential ultracentrifugation and density gradient exosome isosome isolation. In addition, we discuss the intricate DG-Exo process for the isolation of exosomes from murine brain tissue. Neuronal exosome research may help us understand how these deadly viruses cause neuroinvasion.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2760-0_9


Detection and Analysis of West Nile Virus Structural Protein Genes in Animal or Bird Samples

West Nile virus is a common zoonotic pathogen that is mostly identified by RNA analysis by PCR. WNV lineages' genetic differentiation is usually carried out by complete genome sequencing, which is not widely available in several academic and diagnostic laboratories. WNV RNA can be detected by quantitative PCR of the NS2A gene or the C gene regions, which is the primary step. Next, the entire region containing the structural protein genes is amplified by PCR. The primary PCR product is then amplified in parallel reactions, and these secondary PCR products are sequenced.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2760-0_13

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions