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West Nile Virus - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 24 January 2023

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Evaluation of an open forecasting challenge to assess skill of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease prediction.

The most common cause of mosquito-borne illness in the continental United States is West Nile virus. However, no study has been done to compare the strengths and weaknesses of WNV disease forecasting methods on the national level. We used forecasts from the 2020 WNV Forecasting Challenge, an open challenge sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to determine the state of WNV neuroinvasive disease detection and prevention, as well as identify areas for improvement. To determine modeling techniques and contextual variables that were associated with forecast expertise, we also used regression analysis to determine regression techniques and contextual variables that were associated with forecast ability. Forecast skills increased with the new forecast submissions submitted during the 2020 season, according to forecast submissions submitted. Historical WNND cases were good predictors of future cases, but there was no increase in skills achieved by other causes.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36635782


Serological evidence of circulation of West Nile virus in equids in Algerian eastern drylands and its epidemiological risk factors.

340 sera from different equids have been collected from 2015 to 2017 in an attempt to determine the prevalence of equine infectious anemia virus, Usutu virus, and West Nile virus in eastern Algerian drylands. Sera tested positive, doubtful, or negative near to the doubtful threshold in flavivirus ELISA by the virus neutralization procedure, using WNV and USUV strains. The prevalence of WNV antibodies with ELISA was 11. 4 percent relative to 13. 5 percent by WNV VNT. According to this report, WNV and possibly USUV have circulated/are circulating in the Algerian equine population, although EIAV does not appear to be present.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36638646


A West Nile virus nonlocal model with free boundaries and seasonal succession.

The generalized eigenvalues are examined and applied to see if the spreading or disappearance of vanishing occurs in both spatially self- and nonlocal WNv models with seasonal successions. Our results exceed those for the case without local diffusion but no free boundary in the case, as well as those for the case with no visible boundaries but local diffusion, respectively. Moreover, the time dependent solutions' long-lived behaviors play a key role in the initial infection duration, the initial infection scale, and the spreading capability to new areas.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36625946


Type I IFN stimulates lymph node stromal cells from adult and old mice during a West Nile virus infection

ABSTRACT: Because of an age-associated decrease in the immune response, advanced age is a significant risk factor during viral infections. Following West Nile virus infection, elderly people are particularly vulnerable to acute neuroinvasive disease. During WNV infection that results in reduced antiviral protection, age-associated changes in hematopoietic immune cells have been identified by prior studies. Nonhematopoietic lymph node stromal cells are found in the draining lymph node, in the absence of immune cells. It's unclear how LNSCs contributed to WNV immunity and immune senescence. We look at LNSC responses to WNV in adult and old DLNs. Both adult and old LNSCs confirmed an ongoing viral disease largely through type I IFN signaling. Gene expression signatures were similar between adult and old LNSCs. During WNV infection, we were the first to announce age-related differences in LNSCs on the population- and gene expression levels.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR593433


Serological Determination of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds from Rapa Nui, Chile.

Methods: In this research, West Nile virus, flavivirus, was isolated in 37 serum samples from 22 hens on Easter Island, Chile, which was confirmed by the investigator. We find no antibodies to WNV and related viruses of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus serocomplex in the sample, as well as absence of infection across the population.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36602757


Human biting mosquitoes and implications for West Nile virus transmission.

History: Since its inception in North America in 1999, west Nile virus, primarily transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Culex, has infected thousands of humans and countless wildlife. Regular monitoring of mosquitoes collected in a network of gravid traps and CO 2-baited light traps is often required in areas with dedicated mosquito control services. Methods This research uses the human landing catch as a way to compare sampling of potential WNV vectors obtained using traditional trapping techniques. Salinarius, a potential WNV vector species not found in upper Midwest USA, is a potential WNV vector species not found to be abundant in upper Midwest USA. This study demonstrates the value of the HLC collection technique as a complementary tool for monitoring WNV vector species identification in order to aid in WNV vector species identification.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36593496


Development of Antibody-Based Therapeutics Against West Nile Virus in Plants.

West Nile virus has been one of the most common causes of mosquito-transmitted infectious diseases since its discovery in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda's West Nile district. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, over 51,000 cases of WNV infection and nearly 2400 cases of WNV-related deaths were recorded in the United States from 1999 to 2019.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36331777


Detection and Analysis of West Nile Virus Structural Protein Genes in Animal or Bird Samples.

West Nile virus, a common zoonotic pathogen, is mainly identified by PCR of its RNA. Complete genome sequencing is usually used to determine WNV lineages, but it is not widely available in many academic and diagnostic laboratories. WNV RNA is detected by quantitative PCR of the NS2A gene or the C gene regions, according to the primary step. These secondary PCR products are ordered after the primary PCR product is amplified once more in parallel reactions.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36331771


Isolation of Exosomes or Extracellular Vesicles from West Nile Virus-Infected N2a Cells, Primary Cortical Neurons, and Brain Tissues.

We will explore specific methods to isolate exosomes or extracellular vesicles from mouse and human N2a cells, primary cultures of murine cortical neurons, and mouse brain tissue in this chapter. For the extraction of exosomes/EVs from N2a cells and cortical neurons, two specific techniques, differential ultracentrifugation and density gradient exosome is described. In addition, we review the comprehensive DG-Exo process for the isolation of exosomes from murine brain tissue.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36331767


Protocol of Detection of West Nile Virus in Clinical Samples.

Despite the widespread prevalence of WNV-related clinical disease syndromes, many of the WNV-related diseases syndromes are nonspecific at the time of onset; therefore, selecting the correct diagnostic method is critical to not only determine the true burden of disease but also provide pathogen-directed interventions for WNV-infected patients.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36331770

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions