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West Nile Virus - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 24 July 2022

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Adaptive evolution of West Nile virus facilitated increased transmissibility and prevalence in New York State.

In 1999, West Nile virus was first introduced to New York State and quickly expanded its range to the continental United States. An increase in the number of NY10 strains in NYS and evidence of positive selection have been observed in previous studies. Here, we present updated surveillance and sequencing results for WNV in NYS and test if NY10 genotype strains are associated with adaptive change in a host of adaptive advantage. The NY10 genotype was found to have both increased infectivity and transmissibility in Culex pipiens mosquitoes, as well as increased vector availability. Modeling has demonstrated a mechanistic basis for selection that has undoubtedly contributed to the rise in the prevalence of WNV in NYS.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35317702


Usutu Virus escapes langerin-induced restriction to productively infect human Langerhans cells, unlike West Nile virus.

Usutu virus and West Nile virus are both phylogenetically close to emerging arboviruses and pose a global public health threat. The first immune cells they encounter are skin-resident dendritic cells, the first outpost of immune defense since mosquitoes carry USUV and WNV. Since mosquitoes carry USUV and WNV, the first immune cells they encounter are skin-resident dendritic cells, the first outpost of immune defense. We find that LCs produce a quicker and more accurate recreation of USUV than WNV, and that this corresponds to a more pronounced intrinsic immune response to USUV than WNV, when compared to WNV. Longer, blocking or silencing langerin in MoLCs or eLCs made them immune to USUV infection, making them more likely to USUV infection, demonstrating that USUV uses langerin to invade and replicate in LCs.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35191820


West Nile virus and Usutu virus in wild birds from Rescue Centers, a post-mortem monitoring study from Central Italy

West Nile virus and Usutu virus are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause widespread outbreaks of animals and humans around the world. According to the Italian Integrate National Surveillance Plan for Arboviruses, key avian infection hot spots for avian infection surveillance are potential hot spots for avian infection surveillance. Here we present the results of a post-mortem active monitoring survey carried out from November 2017 to October 2020 on animals held in five wild bird rescue centers of Central Italy. The presence of WNV or USUV RNA fragments in five hundred seventy-six wild birds was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. WNV RNA was discovered in one grebe, an adult little grebe, that tested WNV positive on December 19, 2019 and died as a result of severe injuries.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR521329

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions