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West Nile Virus - DOAJ

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Last Updated: 24 July 2022

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Effects of ivermectin treatment of backyard chickens on mosquito dynamics and West Nile virus transmission.

Methodology/principal results We undertook a randomized field trial to see the effects of treating backyard chicken flocks with IVM in urban areas around Davis, California, on mosquito populations and WNV transmission dynamics. We observed a significant decrease in WNV seroconversions in treated vs. untreated chickens, which suggests a decrease in WNV transmission density in treated flocks. Following a bloodmeal on treated chickens vs. chickens with IVM serum levels of 5 ng/mL, IVM serum concentrations increased mortality in wild mosquitoes near treated vs. untreated flocks and increased mortality in wild mosquitoes near treated vs. chickens with IVM serum concentrations greater than 60,000 ng/mL. Conclusions/significance Notes: Our results, coupled with the findings of IVM on Culex mosquito populations and support for the continuing study of oral delivery of WNV to wild birds for local control of WNV transmission, however further work is required to optimize dosing and understanding effects on entomological endpoints.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010260


Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Domestic Geese after Experimental Infection

The West Nile virus is an emerging infectious pathogen that lives in mosquitoes and birds but also infects mammals. We therefore wanted to investigate the potential role of free-ranging chicken in the WNV transmission cycle, and infected 15 goslings with WNV lineage 2. The WN viral genome was found in all analyzed tissue samples in at least one individual by RT-qPCR and viable virus was also isolated in liver samples, except for in the liver.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061319


Larvicidal and adulticidal activity of essential oils from plants of the Lamiaceae family against the West Nile virus vector, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

The most widely distributed primary vector of the West Nile virus in the world, Culex pipiens mosquitoes in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Several attempts for investigation of botanical pesticides in order to prevent pesticide resistance from growing in botanical pesticide-resistant pesticides that are recognized as a threat to ecosystem diversity. These oils were also tested as pesticidal agents against the third instar larvae of Culex pipiens and as an adulticidal agent in five replicates and as an adulticidal agent against approximately three-day-old female adults of Cx. At 1000 ppm, rosemary oil was the most larvicidal, followed by peppermint oil 92. 00% mortality, and LC50. After 24 hrs, rosemary oil had the lowest adult mortality rate, in the United States, while lavender and peppermint oils had a 100 percent mortality rate, with. The study found that rosemary essential oil might be helpful in Cx control.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2022.103350


The Potential Vector Competence and Overwintering of West Nile Virus in Vector Aedes Albopictus in China

West Nile virus is an arbovirus that causes widespread zoonotic disease around the world. Determining the WNV virus's vector competence has important consequences for disease outbreaks. Four Chinese Aedes Albopictus strains were allowed to test infection and transmission rate by feeding on artificial infectious blood meal with WNV. WNV-infected and transmit WNV to 1- to 3-day-old Leghorn chickens. Even the eggs are caused diapausing, the Albopictus Beijing strain that has been orally infected with WNV transovarially can cause WNV transovarially. WNV could live in Ae's diapause eggs, according to the report.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.888751


A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance service of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been established in Canada as a result of the discovery of West Nile virus in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been used to aid West Nile virus dead bird tracking. In order to raise West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, a pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology. This integrated real-time surveillance system, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components are among the customizable real-time web-based surveillance components, linked to the newly released real-time web GIS technology. The pilot system identified the key GIS functions and capabilities that may be helpful to public health surveillance. The pilot system identified the key GIS functions and capabilities that might be useful to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients include a variety of GIS applications for public health surveillance.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-5-17


Feeding behaviour of potential vectors of West Nile virus in Senegal

Abstract Background: West Nile virus is a common pathogen contained in a enzootic cycle of mosquitoes and birds with occasional spill-over into dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. We investigated the seasonal feeding behaviours of the potential WNV mosquito vectors along the Djoudj Park boundary, using a reference trapping technique and two host-specific methods in this research. The neavei may play a significant role in the WNV transmission dynamics, with the former being the best candidate bridging-vector species between mammals and birds. Timing differed with time. Tritaeniorhynchus was only active after the night temperature was above 20°C, unlike Cx. During the observation period, the neavei was still active. During the trapping period, the changes in host attractiveness may be attributed to the migratory birds' variable densities. We discuss the importance of these findings on the risk of WNV infection in horses and humans.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-99


Using high titer West Nile intravenous immunoglobulin from selected Israeli donors for treatment of West Nile virus infection

Abstract Background: The virus is endemic in Israel, and a high number of antibodies is present in the population due to natural exposure. The presence of anti-WNV antibodies in intravenous immunoglobulin from Israeli donors, according to anecdotal reports, aided in the recovery of patients with severe WNV infection. Methods The OMRIX Biopharmaceuticals, Israel, a manufacturer of IVIG-IL's therapeutic success against WNV disease have devised a program to select plasma units from a small minority of Israeli blood donors with anti-WNV antibodies, in an attempt to raise the therapeutic efficacy of the drug against WNV infection. Prophylactic therapy with WNIG was at least 5u201310-fold more potent in comparison to IVIG-IL-based treatments. Following WNV infection, treatment with WNIG during active encephalitis, three to four days, had a dramatic protective effect. Conclusion IVIG can be used to produce WNV IVIG with superior activity for therapeutic and prophylactic measures as a result of carefully selected plasma donated in WNV endemic regions.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-9-18


Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

Abstract Background Since first encounter in the New York City area in 1999, West Nile virus has spread quickly throughout North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. Estimating the risk of the human WNV disease outbreaks under forecast global climate change scenarios requires knowing links between precipitation and WNV transmission. Methods We reviewed results on human WNV prevalence in Mississippi's 82 counties in 2002, using standard morbidity ratio and Bayesian hierarchical tables to determine associations between precipitation and human WNV risks, based on rainfall and human WNV risk. Based on the climatologically consistent drought in the past and climate model predictions for climate change and potentially greater drought incidence in the future, we predict that the risk of WNV outbreaks is likely to rise.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-38


Iron availability affects West Nile virus infection in its mosquito vector

Since iron is an essential nutrient for most organisms, including pathogens, one of the host's defense mechanisms includes sequestration of iron away from the invaded pathogen. Methods & Methods To clarify the effect of iron deposition on mosquito cells during infection, Culex cells were treated with either ferric ammonium citrate or the iron chelator, deferoxamine. FAC-treated cells resulted in decreased expression of NRAMP and ferritin levels, which increased ferritin levels. In comparison to untreated controls in midgut and carcass 8 days pi, mosquitoes treated with DFX reduced viral titers in midgut and carcass 8 days pi. Saliva from mosquitoes treated with DFX reduced viral titers in comparison to untreated controls, indicating poor viral transmission capacity. The results show that heavy chain ferritin may be part of an immune system of mosquitoes in response to viral infections.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-017-0770-0


Phosphonate inhibitors of West Nile virus NS2B/NS3 protease

West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family. The virulent serine protease NS2B/NS3 has been identified as a promising target for the production of anti-WNV drugs, according to the authors. Although several NS2B/NS3 protease inhibitors have been identified so far, the bulk of them are reversible inhibitors.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/14756366.2018.1506772

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions