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After Italy, Greece was the second most impacted European country by the West Nile virus in 2022. 30,816 female Culex pipiens sensu lato mosquitoes were collected from May to September 2022 in seven Central Macedonia's seven regional units, where they were later grouped into 690 pools and tested for WNV, with next-generation sequencing being applied to the samples, which revealed a cycle threshold of Ct 30 in a real-time RT-PCR test. The virus circulation in the Thessaloniki regional unit, where the majority of the human cases were observed, began earlier, peaked earlier, and lasted longer than in other regional units. According to the nucleotide and amino acid levels, the virus strains clustered into the Central European subclade of WNV lineage 2, and the virus strains differed from the initial Greek strain of 2010 by 0. 5 percent and 0. 2 percent, respectively.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v15010224
In ten/365 pools of Culex pipiens, Culex modestus, and Aedes vexans from both study counties, West Nile virus was isolated in 10/365 pools of Culex te, Culex modestus, and Aedes vexans from both studied counties. In a pool of Culex modestus, we also announce the first molecular detection of Sindbis virus RNA in the region. Vero or C6/36 cells were identified as WNV-infected by real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation. According to Phylogenetic analysis of WNV partial NS5 sequences, WNV lineage 2 of the Central-Southeast European clade's WNV lineage 2 has a greater presence in Romania than ever before.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v15010186
West Nile virus, a mosquito-borne virus that can cause severe illness in humans and other animals, is a mosquito-borne virus that can be transmitted to humans and other animals. Numerous studies have highlighted the increasing dissemination of WNV Lineage 2 in Europe, with Italy being one of the European countries with the largest number of cases of West Nile disease reported since 2004, with Italy being one of the countries with the largest number of cases. We present an overview of the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of WNV L2 in Italy between 2011 and 2021 in this paper, based on results obtained from national surveillance programs between 2011 and 2021, which included 46 newly assembled genomes that were analyzed under both phylogeographic and phylodynamic frameworks. Moreover, the prediction model showed the presence of appropriate conditions for the 2022 earlier and wider outbreak of WNV in Italy, underlining the importance of using quantitative models for early warning detection of WNV outbreaks.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v15010035
Since 2010, human cases of West Nile virus infections have been in Greece since 2010, with seasonal outbreaks mainly due to the WNV lineage 2 strain. The National Public Health Organization in Greece is annually monitoring human WNV infections in order to accurately identify human cases of WNV disease and track distribution in terms of time and location. In mosquito ponds of Culex pipiens s. l. , the aim was to monitor mosquito species composition, abundance, and WNV circulation. Female Culex pipiens s. l. The results of WNV and WNV infection rates in swimming ponds were estimated. Female Culex pipiens s. l. is the highest average number of female Culex pipiens s. l. Here, we present findings on the mosquito species composition in the test areas and WNV detection in mosquitoes from areas in Greece where the specific national mosquito surveillance service was operating for two years, 2019 and 2020.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8010001
The interaction between virus reservoirs and vectors, which can be maximized in farm environments, can influence West Nile virus transmission rates. In three scenarios with decreasing gradients of contact with horses: the farm; the neighborhood; and a wild area based on this assumption. Flavivirus infections were analyzed with generic and specific PCR techniques. Flavivirus spp. We developed linear mixed models with predictors to identify Flavivirus spp. By PCR, we discovered a low prevalence of Flavivirus infections in the birds, and 6. 7 percent of the birds were seropositive by ELISA. Flavivirus spp. (Fev) is a species of flavivirus spp.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12010083
West Nile virus is an emerging neurotropic RNA virus and a member of the genus Flavivirus. Naturally, the virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds that are the key amplifying virus hosts. In humans, the incubation period for WNV disease can vary from 3 to 14 days, with an estimated 80% of infected individuals being asymptomatic, 19% developing a mild febrile disease, and less than 1% developing neuroinvasive disease. Laboratory diagnosis of WNV infection is usually carried out by cross-reacting serological techniques or highly specific yet costly molecular approaches.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14010237
Abstract Background West Nile virus is the most common cause of mosquito-borne disease in the continental United States. On the other hand, no study has been done to compare the strengths and weaknesses of WNV disease forecasting strategies on the national level. To determine the success of WNV neuroinvasive disease prediction and identify avenues for improvement, we used forecasts submitted to the 2020 WNV Forecasting Challenge, an open challenge administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to determine the status of WNV neuroinvasive disease prevention and prevention. Methods We conducted a multi-model comparative review of probabilistic forecasts submitted by 15 teams for annual WNND cases in U. S. counties in 2020, evaluating forecast accuracy, calibration, and discriminatory power. Regression analysis was also used to determine modeling techniques and contextual variables that were related to forecasting proficiency. Forecast skills improved through updated forecast submissions received during the 2020 season.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05630-y
In locations with dedicated mosquito control schemes, surveillance methods often rely on frequent testing of mosquitoes collected in a network of gravid traps and CO2-baited light traps. Methods This research uses a human landing catch as an alternative mosquito collection strategy to compare sample samples of potential WNV vectors to traditional trapping methods. The number of individual Culex specimens collected in Perpetu's effort, GTs, and LTs was > 7. 5-fold higher than HLC efforts. Conclusions The less commonly used HLC technique gives more insight into the human-biting mosquitoes in a region with persistent WNV epidemics. This report reveals that the HLC collection procedure can be used as a complementary tool for monitoring WNV vector species identification and aid in WNV vector species identification.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05603-1
During the testing for West Nile virus in horses with neurological disease in the state of Espedrito Santo in 2018, 19 animals were tested, and 52 biological samples were collected for WNV diagnostics. In the cell culture, we obtained a nearly complete genome of WNV co-infected with Peruvian horse sickness virus. A new PHSV RT-qPCR technique was developed following the confirmation of PHSV by next-generation sequencing, but it was used only for PHSV. In addition, it is the first reported co-infection of PHSV and WNV in a horse with neurological abnormalities, which was confirmed by RT-qPCR.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e12097
West Nile Virus is one of the infectious agents that promotes transmissible blood transfusion. The current research, conducted in Khartoum state, Sudan, and designed to find WNV IgG antibodies among blood donors, is cross-sectional, and aimed at determining WNV IgG antibodies among blood donors. Methods: The antibodies of the IgG class against West Nile virus in the serum were determined using the ELISA method. The results revealed that 67 of participants had positive IgG for WNV, as shown by the study. The majority of positive WNV IgG supporters had an age between 28-37 years, followed by an age group 18-27 years 24/67, the most prominent blood group among the positive WNV IgG supporters, was A+ 26/67 followed by O+ 19/67. The result revealed that 40 of the positive IgG had donated blood multiple times before and 58 had a blood transfusion. In Sudan, this situation has been reported that the WNF screening test should be included in blood transfusion screening tests.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2022.101062
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