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Background The West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been posing persistent challenges to public health around the world due to the discovery of new lineages and clades, as well as its ability to penetrate and establish in an increasing number of countries. WNV-lineages 1, 2, and 8 in Africa; the presence of numerous other mosquito species in Africa that have naturally infected with WNV; the absence of detailed epidemiological research in order to prevent potential bias on WNV in Africa; and the importance of carrying out specific serological studies in order to avoid potential confusion of WNV in Africa.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010075
ABSTRACT: West Nile virus is the most widespread mosquito-borne virus in the United States, with nearly 2,000 cases annually. Understanding host responses to infection may help reduce virus replication and disease progression. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism used to analyze innate immunity and host antiviral responses. We wondered if results using D. melanogaster could be extrapolated for the study of orthologous pathways in humans because insulin signaling is well preserved in insect and mammalian species. Endothelin signaling inhibits WNV replication by the introduction of canonical antiviral signaling. We show that endothelin signaling can reduces WNV replication through canonical antiviral signaling. West Nile virus, the most common mosquito-borne disease distributed annually within the continental United States, is causing significant fear. In addition, we show that we can successfully translate findings obtained from D. melanogaster to a more appropriate human system.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.01.17.524426
Abstract Aim West Nile encephalitis caused by the West Nile virus infection in several regions of the world and is a global public health threat. Using human serum samples from 110 patients who were clinically suspected of being contaminated with WNV, the cRT-LAMP and RT-LAMP-LFD assays was evaluated. The detection limit of the developed cRT-LAMP-LFD assays was ten copies, and this assay revealed a high degree of specificity for WNV. Conclusions These results revealed that the newly developed WNV-specific cRT-LAMP and RT-LAMP-LFD assays could be used as an alternative screening method for WN-suspected human samples. Significance and Impact of the Study The cRT-LAMP and LAMP-LFD system for the detection of WNV is fast, reliable, and simple-to-perform.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.15783
Emerging infectious diseases are one of the most common global health issues due to their influence on human and animal health. The vector-borne West Nile virus is spread between birds by mosquitos, but it can also infect humans and horses that cause disease. We sequenced the WNV consensus genome from two mosquito pools and carried out the phylogenetic analyses. We also compared the extracted genomes with those sequenced from human samples obtained during the outbreak and genomes obtained earlier in Spain from birds, mosquitoes, and horses to help identify WNV's eco-epidemiology in Spain. The WNV genomes recovered from mosquito ponds in 2020 were closely related to those recovered from human of the same disease, as expected. In addition, the strain of WNV that triggered the 2020 outbreak was highly similar to the WNV strain that triggered the 2020 outbreak, implying that WNV is overwintering in the region.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v15020266
West Nile virus causes annual outbreaks throughout the world and is the most common cause of mosquito-borne disease in Unite States. Increased infection by influenza-related flaviviruses in vaccinated patients is one of the key safety issues for WNV vaccine production, according to antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. Passive transfer of serum from VLP-vaccinated mice shielded recipient mice from a lethal threat of WNV infection. According to DENV or ZIKV, a plant-made wDIII-producing VLP provides a promising WNV vaccine candidate that promotes protective immunity and minimizes the fear of inducing ADE-prone antibodies to cause severe disease in infants.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020197
West Nile virus is an emerging neurotropic RNA virus and a member of the genus Flavivirus. Naturally, the virus is maintained in a enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds that are the most common amplifying virus hosts. WNV disease in humans is variable, with around 80% of infected individuals being symptomatic, 19% suffering a mild febrile disease, and less than 1% developing neuroinvasive disease. Laboratory diagnosis of WNV infection is usually performed by cross-reacting serological techniques or highly effective yet costly molecular approaches.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14010237
Abstract The eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus vectors in the United States and elsewhere are distributed in broad multi-species assemblies with spatial and temporal distributions, relative abundances, and vector competence. However, most models of mosquito vector dynamics emphasize single species and ignore co-occurrence probabilities between mosquito species pairs along environmental gradients. In this research, we use conditional Markov Random Fields for the first time to determine spatial coexistence patterns of host-seeking mosquito vectors of EEEV and WNV around sampling sites in Manatee County, Florida. We hypothesized that either mosquito species pairs co-occur in patterns influenced by geography and/or climate variables, or that these vector species pairs are indiindiscriminately dependent on each other regardless of the environmental conditions.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05530-1
After Italy, Greece became the second most seriously impacted European country in terms of the West Nile virus in 2022. Central Macedonia, for example, had the most recorded human infections. 30,816 female Culex pipiens sensu lato mosquitoes were collected from May to September 2022 in Central Macedonia's seven regional units; they were then divided into 690 pools and tested for WNV, with next-generation sequencing being applied to the samples, which revealed a cycle threshold of Ct 30 in a real-time RT-PCR test. The virus strains were different from the initial Greek strain of WNV lineage 2, which clustered into the Central European subclade of WNV lineage 2, with the nucleotide and amino acid values varying between 0. 52 percent and 2. 7 percent, respectively.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v15010224
To determine the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Europe, a thorough knowledge of vector species's presence and spatio-temporal distribution patterns is crucial. In 2018, a Culex larva was found in the port of Antwerp's port of Antwerp as part of routine monitoring efforts to identify exotic Aedes mosquito species. It's the first confirmed trace of this West Nile virus bridge vector in Belgium.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4920.1.7
Abstract Background West Nile virus is the most common cause of mosquito-borne disease in the continental United States. To determine the status of WNV neuroinvasive disease prediction and identify avenues for improvement, we used forecasts from the 2020 WNV Forecasting Challenge, an open challenge sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to determine the state of WNV neuroinvasive disease prediction and identify avenues for improvement. Methods We conducted a multi-model comparative review of probabilistic forecasts submitted by 15 teams in annual WNND cases in U. S. counties in 2020 and determined forecast precision, calibration, and discriminatory power. We also used regression analysis to determine modeling techniques and contextual variables that were related to forecast ability, as well as forecast skills. Forecast skills were enhanced with new forecast submissions submitted during the 2020 season. Conclusions: Historical WNND studies were excellent predictors of future cases, but there was no increase in skill achieved by simulations that controlled other variables.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05630-y
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