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West Nile Virus - Crossref

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Last Updated: 24 July 2022

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West Nile virus and Usutu virus in wild birds from Rescue Centers, a post-mortem monitoring study from Central Italy

Abstract West Nile virus and Usutu virus are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause worldwide outbreaks of both animals and humans. As shown in the Italian Integrate National Surveillance Plan for Arboviruses, key avian infection hot spots for avian infection surveillance are wild bird rescue centers, which provide assistance in emergency and care of diseased animals. Here we present the findings of a post-mortem active monitoring report that was conducted from November 2017 to October 2020 on animals held in five wild bird rescue centers of Central Italy. The presence of WNV or USUV RNA fragments was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of WNV or USUV RNA fragments in five hundred seventy-six wild birds. No birds were found positive for USUV RNA. WNV RNA was discovered in one bird, an adult little grebe, that tested WNV positive on December 19, 2019 and died as a result of severe injuries.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.07.19.500416


Procalcitonin measurement in West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease: A first case series

The diagnostic challenge of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease is difficult to recognize. We have four cases of WNV-NID in serum PCT testing. Methods: In a provincial sepsis study, daily serum PCT was evaluated for critically ill patients with sepsis. Those with documented bacterial co-infections had initially elevated PCT levels that had decreased by more than 50% with antimicrobial therapy. Conclusion: These are the first to publish serial PCT tests in suspected cases of WNV-NID and to endorse a low serum PCT in WNV-NID.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3138/jammi-2020-0046


Duration of West Nile Virus IgM Antibodies up to 81 Months Following West Nile Virus Disease Onset

Following WNV disease onset, we found that 23% of samples tested with a WNV ELISA and 43% of samples tested with WNV microsphere immunoassay at 16u201319 months were positive for IgM antibodies. WNV IgM by ELISA's number decreased over time, but 5% of patients remained healthy at 60u201363 months after their acute illness, and 4% were WNV IgM equival at 72 months.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.21-1234


Antiviral Effect of hBD-3 and LL-37 during Human Primary Keratinocyte Infection with West Nile Virus

The West Nile virus is an emerging flavivirus spread by mosquito bites and responsible for a variety of clinical manifestations. We determined their role during WNV infection of human primary keratinocytes. The viral load in the supernatant of infected keratinocytes and of the titer of a viral inoculum incubated in the presence of the peptide decreased by LL-37, indicating a direct antiviral function of this AMP. This report demonstrates the immunostimulatory activity of these two skin AMPs at the initial site of WNV replication and the ability of LL-37 to directly activate West Nile viral infectious particles.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14071552


Retrospective Investigation in Horses with Encephalitis Reveals Unnoticed Circulation of West Nile Virus in Brazil

Several research have published serological evidence pertaining to West Nile virus spread in Brazil in recent years. These findings on the paucity of genomic evidence point to the need for prompt investigation of WNV infection in horses, which may have prompted human cases of encephalitis in Brazil. We retrospectively screened 54 questionable WNV samples collected from the spinal cord and brain of horses with encephalitis between 2017 and 2020 from the Ceargu1 and Bahia states, Brazil's northeastern region, as well as in the northeastern region of Brazil's northeastern region. The first introduction event appears to have occurred in September 2017 and seems to be likely connected to the South American outbreak.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14071540


West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

Here we're going to highlight the achievements of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. During every transmission season, WNV continues to cause acute infections in Italy, although symptoms are sporadic and epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic location. The integration of surveillance data collection and modelling vector control made it possible and was instrumental in supporting the introduction and/or enhancement of preventive steps aimed at lowering the risk of WNV trough blood, tissue, and organ donation as well as new vector control strategies.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.es.2016.21.37.30340


West Nile Virus

The West Nile virus, a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flavivirus family, is commonly responsible for fever and capable of causing meningoencephalitis. Initial testing should include cerebrospinal fluid analysis and West Nile immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum and/or CSF. Both important steps include reducing the Culex mosquito's breeding grounds and using insect repellant to prevent bites.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199976805.003.0053


West Nile Virus: Deaths of Crows and Humans

The most common and severe form of mosquito-borne encephalitis in North America is West Nile virus. West Nile virus has been isolated from over 300 species of birds at this time. The infected birds are divided into two main groups: those that carry the virus and are asymptomatic, and those that exhibit a rare neurologic disorder. House sparrows are also reservoirs for high titers of West Nile virus and play a role in the virus's transmission in urban areas. Viruses can also migrate from the bite site to and through the bloodstream.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190056780.003.0014


One Health surveillance of West Nile and Usutu viruses: a repeated cross-sectional study exploring seroprevalence and endemicity in Southern France, 2016 to 2020

Background The two closely related flaviviruses, West Nile virus and Usutu virus, mainly a pesticide cycle that includes mosquitoes and birds, but also affect humans and other mammals. Given the long history of WNV outbreaks and the first significant human USUV case in Southern France, Aim To investigate the seroprevalence in animals and humans, as well as potential endemicity of WNV and USUV in Southern France. Conclusions We observed the widespread transmission of both viruses and higher USUV in humans, dogs, birds, and mosquitoes, although WNV was higher in horses. In mosquitoes in 2015, 2018, and 2020, the same lineages, WNV lineage 1a, and USUV lineage Africa 3 were discovered in mosquitoes, as shown by genetic analysis, in mosquitoes.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.es.2022.27.25.2200068


Seroprevalence Rates against West Nile, Usutu, and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Viruses in Blood-Donors from North-Western Romania

Introduction: The West Nile virus, Usutu virus, and the tick-borne encephalitis virus are both arboviruses affecting the Flaviviridae family. The aim of our research, considering the current lack of information regarding these viruses' epidemiology in Romania, was to determine serum seroprevalence rates of WNV, USUV, and TBEV among healthy blood donors in north-western Romania. Methods: Human blood samples from healthy donors were collected in six counties from the north-western region of Romania between November 2019 and February 2020. Results: Overall, we got a seropreval of 3. 7 percent for WNV, 0. 8 for TBEV, and 0% for USUV. Conclusion: Despite the low seropreval of WNV, USUV, and TBEV in our study, we recommend that ongoing national vector and disease surveillance and control strategies be carried out. Along with countrywide awareness campaigns, further investigation is required to obtain an accurate picture of the Romanian population's epidemic status regarding these flaviviruses.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138182

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions