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In a temperate mixed forest throughout the growing season, we determined stable isotope composition of the arthropod rain. The arthropod rain's low average 13C and 15N values were mainly driven by wingless microhytophages, mainly from Collembola and Psocoptera, and macrophytophages, mainly aphids, caterpillars, and heteropterans. In addition, there was no consistent difference between saprophages and predators among winged insects in the arthropod rain, meaning that winged insects in the arthropod rain were a random collection of specimens originating in different biotopes and tightly connected to soil food webs.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03893-6
By determining key forest stand factors defining the forest degradation status, We determined the threshold of forest degradation in mature stands of southern Chile's temperate evergreen rain forest by determining key forest stand characteristics. We established 160 500-m2 plots in forest stands that displayed various degrees of change, and determined several variables related to the forest stands' structure and composition, including exotic and native species richness, soil nutrient levels, and other landscape-scale characteristics. We found that the forest degradation status was best described by two composition and structural variables, e. g. , forest stands with five or more exotic species were consistently associated with degraded forest and stands with N1,000 trees/ha represent pristine forests, with a diameter at breast height 10 cm.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2495
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