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Stem cell Function - DOAJ

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Last Updated: 27 April 2022

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Repression of Intestinal Stem Cell Function and Tumorigenesis through Direct Phosphorylation of β-Catenin and Yap by PKCζ

Intestinal epithelial homeostasis requires regular renewal, as shown by stem cells embedded in the crypt's base. We show that PKC inhibits intestinal stem cell function by promoting the downregulation of -catenin and Yap by direct phosphorylation. The increased proliferation of stem cell activity in organoid cultures and in vivo is attributed to the increased tumorigenic and regenerative activity response of Lgr5+-specific PKC-deficient mice. PKC is primarily responsible for stem cell formation regulation in intestinal cancer and homeostasis, according to this.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.01.007


PRMT5 Is a Critical Regulator of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Function via Histone Methylation and FOXP1 Expression

Breast cancer progression, treatment resistance, and relapse are all thought to result from a small number of tumor cells, breast cancer stem cells, according to the author. Our results are highly relevant, as PRMT5 depletion within established tumor xenografts or the administration of patient-derived BCSCs with a pre-clinical PRMT5 inhibitor dramatically reduces BCSC numbers. Our results show that PRMT5 is an important component of BCSC maintenance, and that small-molecule inhibitors of PRMT5 or downstream targets may be a more cost-effective strategy for reducing this cancer-causing population. In part, histone methylation regulators FOXP1 expression, proving that the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 plays a role in breast cancer stem cell function. In vitro and in vivo, targeting PRMT5 can reduce stem cell count, implicating PRMT5 as a key in breast cancer pathogenesis.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.11.096


Exploiting AT2R to Improve CD117 Stem Cell Function In Vitro and In Vivo - Perspectives for Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy

Background/Aims: CD117+ stem cell based therapy is considered a viable therapeutic alternative for terminal heart disease. In vitro, 1 AT2R stimulation can be traced to AT2R stimulation in vivo, and two in vivo can be traced to AT2R stimulation. We therefore asked whether 1 AT2R stimulation affects CD117+ SC cells, two of which can be traced to AT2R stimulation. Though we found reasons for AT2R-driven vasculogenesis in vitro, co-culture studies showed that CD117+ SC enhance cardiovascular integrity of cardiomyocytes independent of AT2R function. And, yet, an optimized AT2R stimulation protocol can be a promising tool for cardiac SC therapy, thanks to an AT2R-driven vaping process.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1159/000430335


Use of Self-Assembling Peptides to Enhance Stem Cell Function for Therapeutic Angiogenesis

The use of nanomaterials for biomedical applications has emerged as a promising field in regenerative medicine. In this research, we investigated whether combining mesenchymal stem cells with SAPs could enhance angiogenesis in rats' ischemic hindlimbs, as compared to MSC or SAP treatment alone. SAPs also demonstrated the ability to deploy endogenous host MSCs into the site of action, particularly when amended to include substance P as a design feature, which allowed for the simultaneous presence of MSCs at the site of action.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4162075


Enhancing Lysosomal Activation Restores Neural Stem Cell Function During Aging

New neurons in the adult brain are generated by Quiescent neural stem cells, and new evidence has revealed that this cell's inability to activate and re-enter the cell cycle is largely responsible for reduced neurogenesis in older animals. Neuro stem cell activation can be enhanced by lysosomes supporting neural stem cell proliferation, according to a study published in Science, a lack of lysosome function during aging contributes to reduced neural stem cell proliferation. The researchers show that quiescent and activated neural stem cells use various branches of proteostasis networks, with quiescent stem cells particularly dependent on the lysosome-autophagy system. Excitingly, lysosomal stimulation in the elderly quiescent population significantly enhanced the ability of triggered neural stem and progenitor cells within the neural stem cell niche.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1177/1179069518795874


Real-Time Monitoring of Glutathione in Living Cells Reveals that High Glutathione Levels Are Required to Maintain Stem Cell Function

Summary: stem cell functions are mainly controlled by their cellular redox status, which is particularly relevant. These investigations revealed that glutathione levels are heterogeneous among subcellular organelles and among individual cells, and they show dynamic shifts and heterogeneity in repopulating SCs depending on oxidative stress or culture conditions. Importantly, a subpopulation of SCs with high glutathione levels demonstrated elevated stemness and migration in vitro and improved therapeutic effectiveness in treating asthma. Our results show that elevated glutathione levels are required for maintaining SC operations, and that tracking glutathione balance and heterogeneity will improve our understanding of the cellular responses to oxidative stress. High glutathione levels in living stem cells in reaction to environmental stress reveal significant variability and heterogeneity in response to environmental stress, as well as evidence that elevated glutathione levels are necessary for retaining murine embryonic stem cells or mesenchymal stem cells' therapeutic potency.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2017.12.007

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions