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Stem cell Function - DOAJ

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Last Updated: 27 July 2022

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PRMT5 Is a Critical Regulator of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Function via Histone Methylation and FOXP1 Expression

Breast cancer progression, treatment resistance, and relapse are thought to have arisen from a small number of tumor cells, breast cancer stem cells, according to a recent study. Our findings are highly relevant, as PRMT5 depletion within established tumor xenografts or the treatment of patient-derived BCSCs with a pre-clinical PRMT5 inhibitor dramatically reduces BCSC numbers. Our findings show the importance of PRMT5 in BCSC maintenance, as well as the fact that small-molecule inhibitors of PRMT5 or downstream targets may be a cost-effective method to rid this cancer-causing population. In part, the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 promotes breast cancer stem cell function, according to histone methylation that controls FOXP1 expression. In vitro and in vivo, targeting PRMT5 leads to reduced stem cell counts, implying that PRMT5 is involved in breast cancer pathogenesis.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.11.096


Current Strategies to Enhance Adipose Stem Cell Function: An Update

Mesenchymal stem cells became a promising therapeutic tool for a number of inflammatory disorders due to their multiple beneficial properties, including superior immune function and tissue-regenerative capacity, among other things. Although bone marrow is the most common source for adult MSCs, increasing evidence shows that adipose tissue-derived stem cells, which can be obtained at a relatively low rate, have potent therapeutic properties comparable to BM-MSCs. Despite its widespread use in pre-clinical settings, ASCs' clinical safety is also uncertain, considering that clinical trials with ASC applications often resulted in unsatisfactory findings.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153827


Interferon Gamma: Influence on Neural Stem Cell Function in Neurodegenerative and Neuroinflammatory Disease

However, IFNu3b3 plays both protective and pathological roles in other central nervous system disorders. During CNS insults, many neural cells that respond to IFN-u03b3 receptors, or primitive stem/progenitor cells, the only pluripotent cells in the adult and adult brains, are often altered. Recent studies report the intricate effects of IFNu03b3 on NSPC activity in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we discuss the effects of IFNu03b3 on NSPC activity in response to various pathological insults.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.4137/CPath.S40497


Use of Self-Assembling Peptides to Enhance Stem Cell Function for Therapeutic Angiogenesis

The use of nanomaterials for biomedical applications has emerged as a promising field in regenerative medicine. Compared to MSC or SAP treatment alone, we investigated whether a combination of mesenchymal stem cells with SAPs could enhance angiogenesis in rats' ischemic hindlimbs. SAPs also demonstrated the ability to recruit endogenous host MSCs into the site of action, particularly when amended to include substance P as a functional motif, allowing for the simultaneous presence of MSCs at the site of action.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4162075


Serum-Mediated Oxidative Stress from Systemic Sclerosis Patients Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Function

paraphrasedoutput:Objectives have been listed as modified, including mesenchymal stromal/stem cells from systemic sclerosis patients. MSC-based therapy may also be dependent on the use of allogeneic MSCs from healthy individuals. Here, we investigated whether heterologous MSCs could have altered characteristics following exposure to oxidative environment of SSc sera's original serum, H2O2-induced AOPPs, or SSc patient serum. MSCs' osteoblastic/adipogenic potential was also enhanced, while their immunosuppressive function was marginally reduced. Discussion of MSCs was also limited by an early analysis and publication. By contrast, several functional characteristics of MSCs were related to their culture with PS, though some functional properties of MSCs were not altered by lifestyle with PS, while others' immunomodulative function was marginalized.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00988


The Coordinated Activities of nAChR and Wnt Signaling Regulate Intestinal Stem Cell Function in Mice

In mammalian non-neuronal cells that synthesize acetylcholine, a phenomenon known as calcium receptor modulation of cell growth via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in response to internal or external stimuli, has been demonstrated. Chelinergic transmission is one of the key routes of excitatory transmission in the enteric nervous system, with the transmitter ACh producing excitatory potentials in postsynaptic effector cells. Here, reports using cryptic organoids lacking nerve and immune cells in culture show that endogenous ACh can be synthesized in the intestinal epithelium to promote organoid growth and differentiation by activation of nAChRs. The expression of marker genes for stem and epithelial cells has been enhanced cell growth and cell differentiation in organoids treated with nicotine. Wnt5a expression was dramatically upregulated after nicotine therapy, according to RNA sequencing results, and Wnt5a restored organoid growth and differentiation in response to mecamylamine.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030738


Role of microRNA-146a in normal and malignant hematopoietic stem cell function

MiR-146a has been implicated in both intrinsic immune signaling and stem cell function as well as in hematopoietic stem cell function. We introduce and discuss the latest findings in miR-146a physiological hematopoiesis in regular state and inflammation, as well as in MDS.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2014.00219


Real-Time Monitoring of Glutathione in Living Cells Reveals that High Glutathione Levels Are Required to Maintain Stem Cell Function

Summary: Ste cell functions are specifically limited by their cellular redox status, which is particularly relevant. Glutathione is the most abundant non-protein thiol that acts as both an antioxidant and a redox regulator. Here, we show that cyanoacrylamide-based coumarin derivatives are ratiometric probes that are suitable for real-time monitoring of glutathione levels in living SCs. Our findings reveal that high glutathione levels are required for maintaining SC functions, and that monitoring glutathione dynamics and heterogeneity can improve our understanding of cell responses to oxidative stress. High glutathione levels in living stem cells in response to environmental stress have shown significant variation and heterogeneity in response to environmental stress, as well as evidence that elevated glutathione levels are essential for maintaining stemness and stem cell potency of mesenchymal stem cells.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2017.12.007


Klotho expression is a prerequisite for proper muscle stem cell function and regeneration of skeletal muscle

Aging of skeletal muscle is concomitant with a decrease in muscle stem cell function, resulting in impaired recovery. Methods We explore the practical role of Klotho in muscle stem cell function following cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury in skeletal muscle using a klotho hypomorphic mouse line, which is distinguished by a premature aging phenotype. Wnt signaling in muscle stem cells is an aberrant canonical Wnt signaling inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling in skeletal muscle, and Klotho responds.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13395-018-0166-x


Transiently Active Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Is Not Required but Must Be Silenced for Stem Cell Function during Muscle Regeneration

Adult muscleu2019s extraordinary ability for regeneration is mediated by muscle stem cells, also known as satellite cells. Wnt/u03b2-catenin signaling has been shown to be extremely important in satellite cells during regeneration as with many stem cells. We specifically test in vivo whether Wnt/u03b2-catenin signaling is essential and sufficient within satellite cells and their derivatives for regeneration using new genetic reagents. Adult satellite cell activation may be a sign of their developmental lineage, in which u03b2-catenin signaling is essential for fetal myogenesis.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.06.019

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions