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In Sudanese Tombak users, the aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of oral dipping of Tombak Smokeless Tobacco on prothrombin time, initiated partial thromboplastin time, global normalized ratio values, and platelet counts. 100 adult users of oral Tombak for three or more years were selected randomly as a research group, according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. As a comparison group, a random group of 100 matched healthy individuals who never used Tombak was randomly selected. The PLT numbers were determined in ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid containers for the PLT counts, as well as in trisodium citrate anti-coagulant containers for coagulation experiments using a co-agulometer machine analyzer. Our results show a significant decrease in PLT count mean values in the Tombak users group relative to the non-taking Tombak group mean values. In Tombak users vs. a , INR mean values were significantly longer than in Tombak vs. s.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep14020019
Abstract Background Smokeless cigarettes is a safer alternative for smokers who wish to quit but need nicotine. Results One of the key reasons for the difference is our more consistent choice between study-specific never smoker and combined smoker/non-smoker estimates. Their review included substantial rise never smoker estimates in one study and combined smoker/non-smoker estimates in another, omitting a combined estimate in the first study and a never smoker count in the second showing no change. Never smoker results from one study showing a dramatic rise in squamous cell carcinoma were included, but related findings for adenocarcinoma and combined smoker/non-smoker results for both cell types with no change were excluded. A systematic meta-analysis based on pre-defined protocols and all relevant information gives a lower risk of cancer from smokeless tobacco than does the previous Boffetta et al's analysis.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-256
Afzal is a common smokeless tobacco product available in Oman illegally. A sample of Afzal was obtained from a single manufacturer and divided into samples. Anions were used to measure nicotine levels and ionexchange chromatography was used to determine concentrations of nitrite, chloride, fluoride, bromide, sulphate, and phosphate anions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The samples had an alkaline pH of 10. 46 with high amounts of total and unionised nicotine. The chloride content led to a rise in IC chromatography. Conclusion: Afzal's moisture content and chloride concentration were similar to those of other STPs. All anion concentrations were below the maximum daily target set by international health organizations. However, the increased alkaline pH in the analysed Afzal samples indicate that STP users will suffer health issues as a result of their use.
Compared to smoking cigarettes, use of Western smokeless tobacco products is attributed to a very small risk of life-threatening disease. However, consumers and policymakers have no chance of knowing that ST is less harmful than smoking because common research by scientists and advocates overstates the health risks from ST relative to cigarettes. We looked at the content of 316 relevant websites found by a Google search. Findings We found that when any solid evidence regarding ST is given, the threat is almost universally associated with nicotine use. About 1/3 of the pages, as well as other media companies, have stated that ST is either bad or worse than cigarettes. The risks are similar, according to the majority of the other websites' claims.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-5-31
Afzal is an illegally sold smokeless tobacco drug commonly used by youth and teenagers in Oman. Afzal's results: The aim was found to have high amounts of all heavy metals except for Ni and Pb, which were found in quantities below acceptable international limits. Although Afzal's daily intake of heavy metals was below the maximum permissible limit set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization, exception for Cr and Ni, which were unexpectedly elevated when compared to international standards, was still elevated when compared to international standards. Conclusion: The results of this report revealed that Afzal contains a number of heavy metals that may cause health problems. Therefore, urgent control of Afzal's illicit sale of Afzal is required across Oman's national level, as well as a campaign to address public health education and health risks surrounding the drug use in Afzal.
The popularity of smokeless cigarettes is on the rise, and its use is increasing around the world. Amongst South Asian populations around the world, Consumption of Gutkha, a heroin-addicted form of ST, is particularly prevalent. Adult male mice were treated daily for three weeks by the oral mucosa, with equal amounts of either sterile water, a nicotine dissolution in water, or a solution of lyophilized guthka dissolving in water. Exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart rate, but not nicotine, reduced liver weight, body mass, and serum testosterone levels, according to the study. These results show that short-term htka use adversely affects growth and circulating testosterone levels, as well as human hormone levels, and that gutkha toxicity can be attributed to substances other than nicotine.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110100919
Abstract Background: Although smokeless tobacco use has played a huge part in Swedish men's low smoking use, there is no data on the number of smokers trying 12 methods in their most recent quit attempt, nor were there any smokers or current smokers at the time of the study. Ex smokers became former smokers after none of the estimated 14,000 men who tried the nicotine nasal spray became ex smokers. The results of this research show that tobacco harm reduction is a viable cessation option for American smokers.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7517-5-18
Abstract Background The use of smokeless cigarettes in Bangladesh is one of the world's largest. Despite having a tobacco control scheme, the use of SLTs has increased in recent years. SLTs and challenges faced during control attempts in Bangladesh are among the primary objectives of this paper. Methods A large number of published studies on tobacco use in general and SLT were analyzed. To find nationalu2010 or sub-u2010level results, national survey reports, including PubMed, were searched on the websites of key organizations and national survey reports, including PubMed. Additional information was collected by live surveys on SLT products, particularly on graphic health warnings. SLT control in Bangladesh was captured by the authors' perspectives in a series of brainstorming sessions. SLT prevalence ranged from 21% to 26% among adults, according to a survey. Despite the occurrence of several policies and programs, SLT control concerns are not properly addressed.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/lim2.56
Nonpregnant females attending a health promotion clinic are expected to have predictors of hypertension. To find the predictors of hypertension among nonpregnant females attending a health promotion clinic, we need to know the predictors of hypertension. The investigation included 319 nonpregnant females of age 20-201370 years. According to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated between each of the three variables of age, smokeless tobacco use, and body mass index as a measure of correlation, respectively. Age, smokeless tobacco use, and body mass index were all related to elevated blood pressure, according to a univariate linear regression report. A predictor of diastolic blood pressure was a high body mass index. Both systolic and diastolic hypertension were attributed to high body mass index and low school education, according to a multiline regression model. In addition, the systolic hypertension was associated with increased age and smokeless tobacco use. For preventing hypertension and its complications, health care must control body mass index and smokeless tobacco cessation.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8765217
Background & aims: Smokeless tobacco has become a global menace; India, one of the world's top-burden countries, contributes to about 65% of its consumers. This paper was aimed at delineating the amount of study on several aspects of SLT, with the intention of delineating research gaps for guiding future research priorities. Methods: SLT research results were obtained from PubMed's website using the term "u2018smokeless tobaccou2019 as a key word and the use of Medical Subject Headings terminology filter. SLT-specific MeSH terms were estimated for individual MeSH terms and compared to global and Indian data, with a quantum of research in various aspects of SLT. When compared to global data, adverse effects of SLT were more prevalent in Indian studies, with a higher proportion of study on epidemiology, aetiology, and surveillance at a global scale.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_80_18
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