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Last Updated: 20 May 2022

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Mass concentrations and elemental analysis of PM2.5 and PM10 in a coastal Mediterranean site: A holistic approach to identify contributing sources and varying factors.

Daily mass concentrations were generally lower than WHO air quality guidelines, but they did display significant diurnal and seasonal variations, with heavy African dust events and residential heating emissions during wintertime triggering the elevated % increase in ambient levels. For S with higher Sulfates in the onset of secondary sulfates, statistically significant seasonal variability was found. During dust events, typical soil-derived particles were significantly elevated during dust events, but relative low concentrations remained unchanged. It was also discovered that dust activities contributed to P, S, V, Zn, Sr, and Pb, with elemental ratios such as Si and Ca/Al acting as good indicators of African dust. Heavy metals were found to have both direct and indirect effects on PM2. 5 and PM10.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155980


Large Comparative Analyses of Primate Body Site Microbiomes Indicate that the Oral Microbiome Is Unique among All Body Sites and Conserved among Nonhuman Primates.

The mammalian microbiome research is a key tool for understanding host-microbial diversity and coevolution, as well as the effects of bacterial communities on host health. Here, we compare microbiome communities from eight distinct body sites among 17 phylogenetically diverse species of nonhuman primates, making the most comparative study of microbial diversity among primate host species and body sites. In comparison, all other body site microbiomes clustered principally by host species and distinguished by body site within host species. Despite their substantial dietary and phylogenetic variations, these results highlight two main findings: the oral microbiome is distinct among many nonhuman primates, and analyses of host-microbial communities are related to the degree of the comparison, emphasizing the need for larger comparative microbial cultures in a variety of habitats to help clarify host-microbial interactions, evolutionary and biological patterns of variation, and implications for human-microbial coevolution. We conducted one of the most comprehensive comparative studies to date, revealing that the oral microbiome was distinct from those of all other body organ systems and convergent among host species, suggesting conserved niche specialization within the Primates order. We also show the importance of host species differences in shaping the microbiome within specific body locations.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.01643-21


Site-Selective Silver-Catalyzed C-H Bond Deuteration of Five-Membered Aromatic Heterocycles and Pharmaceuticals.

Hydrogen isotopes can be added to the manufacture of formulated pharmaceuticals and to the modification of their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics by direct incorporation of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules by Catalytic methods. Here, we show that a phosphine-ligated silver-carbonate complex catalyzes the site-selective deuteration of C-H bonds in five-membered aromatic heterocycles and active pharmaceutical components that have been imresistant to catalytic H/D exchange. The silver catalysts react in both polar and nonpolar solvents, reacting with five-membered heteroarenes lacking directing groups, tolerate a diverse range of administrative functions, and react in both polar and nonpolar solvents.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.0c04917


Broad and ultra-potent cross-clade neutralization of HIV-1 by a vaccine-induced CD4 binding site bovine antibody.

The vaccination of cows by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has produced a wide variety of antibodies, which has resulted in broad neutralizing antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were isolated from a clade A vaccination cow using a heterologous clade B antigen in this research. The bNAb binding site on CD4bs is more reliable than the majority of CD4bs bNAbs isolated so far. MEL-1872 mAb with CDRH3 of 57 amino acids has greater potency than VRC01 against clade B viruses and more than CHO1-31 against tested clade A viruses.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100635


Sculpting a Uniquely Reactive Cysteine Residue for Site-Specific Antibody Conjugation.

Several key variable domain combinations pair a tumor-targeting antibody with h38C2 to enable precise, fast, and stable assembly of antibody-drug conjugates. Here, we extend the scope of this ADC assembly program by changing the h38C2's active lysine to a cysteine. With the h38C2_K99C module, a cost-effective, fast, accurate, and stable assembly of ADCs emerged as a key electrophile. ADCs based in K99C2_K99C were found to be as potent as h38C2-based ADCs and provide a new assembly route for ADCs with single and dual payloads, using a dibromolytic polymerization inhibitor monomethyl auristatin F.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.2c00146


Salorno-Dos de la Forca (Adige Valley, Northern Italy): A unique cremation site of the Late Bronze Age.

Cremated human remains preserved from an ancient cremation platform on the archaeological site of Salorno-Dos de Forca is one of the few and most significant records of cremated human remains preserved from an ancient cremation platform. The pyre area, which is located along the upper Adige valley, has produced a record number of cremated human remains, melted animal bone fragments, shards of pottery, and other grave goods made in bronze and animal bone/antler. Salorno may be the product of a lengthy line of rituals in which the human cremains did not receive individual burial but were left in situ in a communal/communal space of primary combustion, defining a region of repeated funeral ceremonies involving offerings and libations in recent decades. With a number of human remains that have outweighed that of any other coeval contexts interpreted as ustrina, the human remains revealed as ustrina, Salorno.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0267532


Peptide Backbone Modifications for the Assessment of Cleavage Site Relevance in Precursors of Signaling Peptides.

In genetic complementation experiments, the cleavable wild-type precursor to the biogenesis of peptide hormones and growth factors can be demonstrated, but not for a non-cleavable precursor mutant. Peptide backbone extensions have been used to improve the nutritive stability of peptide drugs and basic research, as well as to determine whether processing at a single location is required for precursor maturation and bioactive peptide formation.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2079-3_7


High-Efficiency Multi-site Genomic Editing (HEMSE) Made Easy.

For several bio-related technologies, it is vital to engineer bacterial genomes in a cost-effective manner. Gene recombineering techniques that use single-stranded DNA recombination technology helps to insert mutations within bacterial genomes in a remarkably fast and easy manner. The technology is based on three pillars: adoption of a phage recombinase that works well in the target strain, ease of introduction of a short ssDNA oligonucleotide that causes the mutation to be carried forward into the bacterial cells at risk, and momentary reduction of the endogenous mismatch repair by transient expression of a dominant negative mutL allele.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2233-9_4


Regulating the electronic structures of mixed B-site pyrochlore to enhance the turnover frequency in water oxidation.

For the entire testing period of 24 h in acidic electrolyte, we demonstrated mixed B-site pyrochlore Y2MnRuO7 catalysts with 14 times higher turnover rate than RuO2 during manufacturing a low overpotential of 300 mV. According to this B-site mixed pyrochlore Y2MnRuO7's higher oxidation state of Ru than those of Y2Ru2O7, which could be vital for improving OER results as the wider and lower Ru 4d band resulted from Mn's B-site substitution is favorable to the OER kinetics.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40580-022-00311-z

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions