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Public Health - OSTI GOV

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Last Updated: 07 February 2022

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Employing Molecular Phylodynamic Methods to Identify and Forecast HIV Transmission Clusters in Public Health Settings: A Qualitative Study

Molecular HIV surveillance is a promising public health measure for reducing the HIV epidemic, according to a new national health initiative. Clustering techniques used by health departments to date are limited in their ability to infer/forecast cluster growth trajectories. Qualitative results were collected through focus groups among field experts using semi-structured, open-ended questions. Most participants use molecular techniques for HIV surveillance on a daily basis. All agreed that linking molecular sequences to epidemiological findings is crucial for improving HIV surveillance. In addition to methodological difficulties, a variety of implementation hurdles are anticipated in relation to the uptake of phylodynamic methods for HIV surveillance, according to We found that, in addition to methodological difficulties, a variety of implementation barriers are likely.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1815774


Assessing outdoor air quality and public health impact attributable to residential black carbon emissions in rural China

Black carbon, which is a key component of particulate matter that has links to air pollution, climate forcing, and further impacts on public health, is a key component of particulate matter that relates to air pollution, climate change, and other issues regarding public health. Residents of rural China could suffer with severe respiratory and cardiopulmonary health problems, but the condition has been inaccurately assessed. An updated method of estimating the BC-related public health burden is required. Based on a previous field investigation, which were now developed for air quality simulation, Domestic BC emissions at 11 km resolution were calculated. Residential combustion of solid fuel in rural China produced 648. 0 Gg BC in 2014, after dispersion, accounting for 58% of annual mean ground-level BC concentration in China. These results show that rural household BC emissions play a significant role in air pollution generation and public health impacts. Our findings are expected to be useful in implementing China's next-stage environmental policy for the residential market.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1774895


Novel Analysis and Visualization of Chemical Events for Public Health Surveillance

ObjectivePacific Northwest National Laboratory (OBN) hosted an intern-basedweb application development competition in the summer of 2016 aimed at the creation of novel chemical monitoring applications to aid in health situational awareness. The three teams were made up of three graduate students from several US universities focusing on non-public health fields, such as computer sicence and user design. IntroductionPacific Northwest National Laboratory, the founding of the DTRA Biosurveillance Ecosystem, hosts an annual intern-based web app development competition. Previouscompetitions have honed away from biosurveillance and focusing on emerging public health chemical situational awareness and increasing public health surveillance. DTRA BSVE. MethodsPNNL's summer interns were sponsored for a 10-week period as part of a summer web application development competition. Given a corpus of text data about a chemical occurrence, ChemAnalyzer is a text-analytics platform that can assist more data-driven decisions. Conclusions: The teams' app included upgradeable mapoverlay, search capabilities for finding specific or related events, incident and state/national-level statistics and trends, as well as social media integration based on keywords related to chemical monitoring, as well as news and social media integration based on keywords related to chemical monitoring. The web app development competition provided a unique opportunity for students to learn about the new trends in chemical monitoring as it pertains to health sit-uationalawareness.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1629193

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions