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Proximate Cause - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 04 February 2022

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Volcanic climate impacts can act as ultimate and proximate causes of Chinese dynastic collapse

The demises of China's reigning dynasties have been attributed to explosive volcanic eruptions over the past two millennia, with the degree of influence depending on pre-existing tensions in society, as shown by a systematic review of eruptions and Chinese warfare. To reveal the dynamic role of volcanic climatic shocks in demise, we'll use a 1,062-year reconstruction of Chinese warfare as a proxy for political and socioeconomic hardship. We discover that smaller shocks may be the sole cause of collapse at times of elevated pre-existing anxiety, whereas larger shocks may be more noticeable as proximate causes with greater apparent pre-existing stress. Post-collapse war continues to diminish rapidly, such that it might devolve into an evolutionary adaptation tied to the influential "mandate of heaven" theory, in which successive dynasties may claim legitimacy as divinely sanctioned mandate holders, facilitating a more rapid restoration of social order.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00284-7

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* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions