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Proximate Cause - Crossref

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Last Updated: 07 May 2022

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Radiolarian biodiversity dynamics through the Triassic and Jurassic: implications for proximate causes of the end-Triassic mass extinction

As the most widespread silica-occidental marine microfossils of the time, radiolarians serve as a control group against marine calcareous taxa testing selectivity and reaction to changing environmental conditions. Using data from the Paleobiology Database and employing sampling methods, the recently developed gap-filler equations, and an enhanced stratigraphic resolution at the subscale level, we investigated the origination and extinction rates of radiolarians, using data from the Paleobiology Database and employing sampling standardization, the newly developed gap-filler equations, and an improved stratigraphic resolution at the substage level. Global warming is a more likely proximate cause of the extinctions than ocean acidification, as shown by calcifying and siliceous organisms. In our reports, the previously reported smaller events of radiolarian turnover appear to be below average levels. The apparent early Norian extinction peak is not significant compared to the long-term trend, and is possibly a sampling artifact. At some conferences and deviates at others, radiolarian diversity history is both complex and forced, as its course parallels major calcareous fossil societies.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1666/14007


Proximate and ultimate causes of signal diversity in the electric fish Gymnotus

Summary: Animal signal evolution requires a complete understanding of signal transmission and reception as well as the ultimate mechanisms behind adaptation and diversification. Electric diversity in the species-rich neotropical electric fish genus Gymnotus is summarized here. The first investigates the immediate causes of variation in the electric organ discharge – both the communication and electrolocation signal of electric fishes – by means of research into electrocytes, electrocyte innervation, electric organ anatomy, and neural coordination of the discharge. Four distinct groups of animals were identified at a regional level of the genus' phylogeny and to a specific type of ht-EOD waveform at the proximate level, with each corresponding to a distinct region of the genus' phylogeny and a specific type of ht-EOD waveform.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.083261

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions