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Using Streptomyces rimosus subsp, this paper develops a method for paromomycin production by solid-state fermentation. Solid state fermentation has gained a lot of attention in the development of several products due to their numerous benefits over submerged liquid fermentation. A time course analysis of paromomycin manufacturing was carried out after selecting the right solid substrate, followed by a modification of environmental conditions using response surface technology. Initial dry solids reaches 2. 21 mg/g initial dry solids at a pH of 8. 5, inoculum size 5. 5, and a temperature of 30 °C are all typical in environmental conditions using D optimal technology resulted in a 4. 3-fold rise in paromomycin concentration reaching 2. 21 mg/g initial dry solids at a pH of 8. 5, a 4. 3-fold increase in paromomycin concentration of 8. 5, 3% u00b0C Conclusion: Solid state fermentation led to increased paromomycin concentrations, cost reduction of raw materials, less energy use, and waste water discharge, which can have significant implications in industrial fermentation. SSF is therefore a more cost-effective alternative to SLF for paromomycin production.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-100837/v1
One of a number of microsporidia species that cause disease in honey bees is V. ceranae, and widespread attempts to develop new treatment methods for bees that are infected with these pathogens are ongoing. Paromomycin reduces the infection severity of this parasite when testing compounds for potential activity against V. ceranae in whole organisms, according to the authors. Critically, the paromomycin doses that are recommended for bees have high resistance against the honey bee microbiome bacteria and cause apparent stress in bees.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061107
Paromomycin has been used in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, although not yet approved for the treatment of leishmaniasis in Brazil, but with a 90 percent success rate. In Leishmania, we will investigate the role of a subfamily of ABC proteins in the mechanisms of paromomycin resistance by gene transfection and overexpression of these genes. To find out the mechanism of action and resistance of this drug in Leishmania, we hope to investigate the role of a subset of ABC proteins.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.20396/revpibic2620181261
Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with the protozoan Leishmania infantum in Brazil. Paromomycin, an alternative drug already used in the treatment of VL in Asia, has a 90 percent success rate. In this research, we examined the compatibility of isolates of L. infantum from dogs of the city of Embu-Guayu, the State of Su00e3o Paulo.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.20396/revpibic2620181376
Paromomycin and the related compound geneticin are both reported as having significant in vitro anti-C. parvum activity against intracellular parasites by a method that does not require drug trafficking through the host cell cytoplasm. C. parvum disease infection caused no rise in paromomycin concentrations in intracellular bacterial killing assay, but not in uninfected cells, according to us. Caco-2 cells' uptake was 37% higher than the estimated intracytoplasmic paromomycin concentration, suggesting host cell vesicular uptake and concentration. However, preinfection exposure of Caco-2 cells to paromomycin did not result in subsequent reduction of parasite formation, which indicates that if exogenous paromomycin enters the infected host cell vesicular compartment, it does not effectively communicate with the parasite.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.66.8.3874-3883.1998
C. paravum infections in suckling scid mice tended to be associated with villus surfaces, while in weaned and older scid mice infections, bacterial scid mice were more commonly localized in abscess crypts. Oocyst shedding in suckling scid mice was 50 to 200 times higher than in weaned mice, making suckling mice a more useful tool for drug testing. In suckling mice, villus surface infections were extremely effective against suckling mice, but it was less effective against infections in inaccessible areas such as abscessed crypts and stomach pits. After paromomycin treatment of piglets infected with one C. parvum isolate isolate, Mild's mild diarrhea and infection were cleared, Mild's moderate diarrhea and bacterial infection were cleared. In either case, it was also clear that the effects of safe drugs against C. parvum can be detected within 5 days after the onset of therapy.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/cdli.1.4.450-463.1994
In Leishmania donovani field isolates isolated from VL patients from zones of variable sodium antimony gluconate resistance, we hoped to collect baseline data on natural in vitro susceptibility to paromomycin and sitamaquine. At the promastigote stage, field isolates displayed variable sensitivity to paromomycin and sitamaquine with respective mean dose values of 0. 3 3. 2 °u01b1 and 2. 1 u03bcM. 3. 2 u00b1 0. 3 0. 3 bcM and 2. 1 0. 05 0. 05 0. 2 0. 9 bcM and 17. 7 0. 3 0. 0 1. 0 0. 1 0. 05 u03b1 0. 36 0. 05 0. 3 1. 0 a 2. 3 u00b1 1. 0 a stage, u00b1 0. 2 1. 2 &u00b1 and sia u00b1 0. 3 1. 0 0. 3 u00b1 0u00b1 0. 2 u00b1 039b1 1. 0 0. 2 1. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 3 1. 0 0. 01 1. 1 u00b1 0. 05 u00b1u00b1 0. 1 1. 0 0. 3 1. 0 0. 1 1. 0 0. 051u00b1 0. 05 0. 3 u03 Isolates from high SAG resistance zones had significantly lower susceptibility to sitamaquine than those from low SAG resistance zones, while isolates from different zones showed similar susceptibilities to paromomycin.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.00812-10
ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis caused by the parasite Leishmania donovani is a potentially lethal condition. Paromomycin sulfate sulfate's low-cost parenteral version has been recently licensed for the treatment of VL. Hence, efforts are required to create a combination therapy of PM with other drugs to reduce the risk of disease and prolong the drug's useful life. The combination drug's antileishmanial and in vitro reactions were determined. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry, the immunomodulatory role of PC-SA-PM was established. PC-SA-PM demonstrated an immunomodulatory effect on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for gamma interferon production and downregulated disease-associated interleukin-10 production and downregulated transformation growth factor u03b2 to near-nothing growth factors. Such combination chemotherapy may be a promising alternative to leishmaniasis treatment, with a convincing change of the host immune response from a disease-promoting pattern to a Th1-biased reaction indicative of long-term resistance.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.00524-10
In vitro, the penetration of PM from the liposomal PM formulations into the mouse skin was determined, with Franz diffusion cells fitted with mouse skin at 37°C for 8 h, and the amount of PM retained in the skin was around 60% for both formulations. They were 65. 32 and 59. 73 u03bcg/ml, respectively, and those against L. major promastigotes in macrophages were 65. 32 and 59. 73 bcg/ml, respectively, and those against L. major amastigotes in macrophages were 24. 64 and 26. 44 bcg/ml, respectively. In mice treated with Lip-PM-10 or Lip-PM-15 than in mice treated with PBS or control liposomes, there was no significant difference between the two groups treated with either Lip-PM-10 or Lip-PM-15, but no significant difference was made between mice treated with either Lip-PM-10 or Lip-PM-15. Topical liposomal PM may be useful for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, according to the study.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.01319-08
The outcome of resistance selection on intracellular amastigotes was shown to be protocol and species dependent, although experimental selection of resistant strains in vitro has regularly been reported using the less effective promastigote vector stage. Multiple treatment/relapse cycles in infected Syrian golden hamsters helped to corroborate these in vitro findings. These findings, in short, recommend the need for more research into the mechanisms and dynamics of MIL resistance selection.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.00707-15
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