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"The identifying of fecal contamination is often necessary for protecting public health and guiding remediation efforts, but contaminated fecal contamination can often be low and unrecognizable by such methods. In addition, our findings showed an elevated sensitivity of the digital PCR assay to detect both human and gull contamination, indicating that it could be a useful tool for future microbial source tracking studies. We reviewed river and beach sites within the Rouge River watershed, associated stormwater outfalls, and Rouge Beach in this report. However, the occurrence of human fecal contamination along Rouge Beach and in the lower portions of the watershed was largely dependent on rain events. Both dPCR and qPCR methods revealed the same predominance of human and gull markers in stormwater and beach locations, respectively; however, the dPCR multiplex assay was more sensitive and capable of detecting fecal contamination that was unnoticeable by qPCR assays. These results show that the dPCR assay used in this study may be a useful tool for MST studies to help detect low traces of fecal contamination at low levels. The identification of fecal contamination is often present at low levels and remains undetectable by certain methods, as well as guiding remediation efforts; however, fecal contamination can often be present at low levels and remain undetectable by certain methods. In addition, high traces of gull fecal contamination were found in Rouge Beach, particularly during drier sampling activities. ".
"Microbial source tracking techniques such as the detection of the HF183 gene target of Bacteroides have been suggested for monitoring human fecal pollution inputs to surface waters; however, the persistence of HF183 and other MST markers in soil flushed after contamination events is not well understood. " Four months after the soil was polluted, all four microbial organisms were still present in flush water. PMMoV lasted much longer and had a slower decay rate than the other microbial indicators, but E. coli degraded quickly. Even for several months after the contamination has occurred, our results show that water flushing through riverbank soils that have never been previously affected by sewer overflows or sewer exfiltration may be a source of microbial contamination to surface waters. "Results from this research also show the benefits of using multiple human-associated fecal indicators to distinguish pollution from various microbial species in water bodies. ".
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