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Methane Emissions - OSTI GOV

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Last Updated: 08 February 2022

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Utilizing Earth Observations of Soil Freeze/Thaw Data and Atmospheric Concentrations to Estimate Cold Season Methane Emissions in the Northern High Latitudes

We use a new method to capture methane emissions in the northern high latitude's seasonality. The SMOS F/T records include daily updates on soil freezing state in the northern latitudes, and in this series, the data is used to map the cold season in the northern latitudes and, consequently, increase our knowledge of the seasonal cycle of biospheric methane fluxes. The introduction of the SMOS F/T soil state has been shown to be highly effective in improving the inversion model's cold season biospheric flux estimates. Our findings show that the cold season biospheric CH4 emissions in northern high latitudes are just 0. 60 Tg lower than previously estimated, corresponding to a 17% reduction in the cold season biospheric emissions.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1837436


IN-SITU PIPELINE COATINGS FOR METHANE EMISSIONS MITIGATION AND QUANTIFICATION FROM NATURAL GAS PIPELINES

Natural gas production hit a record high in 2020, with 34 trillion cubic feet. Methane, which is up to 25 times more effective at trapping heat within the atmosphere over a 100-year cycle, makes up a majority of all natural gas produced, while other types of natural gas leaks, according to EPA reports. About 75% of all natural gas produced would be lost during normal operations due to unaddressed leaks. DragXTM is a chemically resistant, water-and-oil repellent nanocomposite system that can be used in-situ on natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines with a minimum of surface preparation. DragXTM is also able to significantly reduce the surface roughness and, subsequently, the frictional drag coefficients within a pipeline, increasing throughput, decreasing energy consumption of pressurization and pumping, and allowing for longer pipeline operations without interruption, reducing the methane released during pipe isolation and venting. Oceanit has used the Department of Energy's assistance to fully research, de-risk, and demonstrate that the DragXTM core technology is both economically efficient and commercially desirable to pipeline operators and energy companies alike, as part of this program. This versatile nanocomposite surface treatment has the ability to be the backbone for CO2 and Hydrogen transportation pipeline infrastructure, in addition to the already field-probeted applications. The findings from this research may lead to the introduction of surface treatment technologies related to the energy transition infrastructure in the United States and elsewhere around the world, thus benefitting the clean energy initiatives in the United States and elsewhere around the world.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1837770


Smart Methane Emission Detection System Development (Final Report)

Using Optical Gas Imaging cameras, a team at the University of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory developed a device that identified methane leaks quickly, accurately, and autonomously at critical midstream segments of the natural gas distribution network in real-time for the purpose of minimizing methane pollution using Optical Gas Imaging cameras. Smart Leak Detection – Methane – Methane’s Smart Leak Detection reduces human error, minimizes response time to a leak event, and maximize midstream visibility by installing a high degree of automation in the process of methane leak detection to minimize human error, minimize response time, and maximize midstream visibility. SwRI now has the ability to determine fugitive emission leak rates, assess leak rate, prioritize repairs, and verify repairs in a single device, thanks to Deep Learning's use of Deep Learning. With advancements in safety and speed for traditional quantification-based repairs, Leak Detection and Repair services, the operators' overhead cost is reduced, leading to less overhead costs for the operators. The new generation QOGI technology uses the same cameras used in Leak Detection and Repair services, with improvements in safety and speed for Leak Detection and Repair services, which ultimately resulted in less overhead costs for the operators. Classification: Achieve less than 5% false positive detection rate. About 70% of the time In order to get these results, several infrared and other sensors were tested in tandem with the midwave OGI to gather additional data to train the underlying models.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1837550


Representing methane emissions from wet tropical forest soils using microbial functional groups constrained by soil diffusivity

In a normal precipitation year, Valley soils constituted the largest source of CH4 emissions, but drought recovery in 2015 resulted in dramatic pulses in CH 4 emissions from all topographic positions. With the Microbial Model for Methane Dynamics-Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten, a microbial functional group CH 4 model and a diffusivity module for solute and gas transport within soil microsites, we investigated the dynamics of CH4 emissions. During the drought event and methanogen regeneration, changes in simulated available substrate for CH4 production and oxidation raised the predicted biomass of methanotrophs during the drought event and oxidation, which in turn caused net emissions of CH 4. This research improved the predictive capability for CH 4 emissions associated with challenging topography and drought in wet tropical forest soils, according to this report.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1786288


An Analysis of Abandoned Oil Well Characteristics Affecting Methane Emissions Estimates in the Cherokee Platform in Eastern Oklahoma

Abandoned oil and gas wells could leak methane, but reports are limited. We review methane emissions from abandoned wells in Oklahoma's Cherokee Platform, a previously unaccounted basin, and compare emissions factors to those in the Greenhouse Gas Inventory. For unplugged wells, plugged wells had an average EF of 96 429 g/day and 65 294 g/day. For unplugged versus plugged wells, we estimated ethane EFs based on geochemical analysis of gas samples, resulting in higher EFs for unplugged versus plugged wells.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1783797


Methane emissions from tree stems: a new frontier in the global carbon cycle

This emerging field of research has revealed a significant spatial and temporal variation in CH4 stem emissions between trees and species, as well as within and across ecosystems, which is not fully understood. Here, we summarize up to 30 opportunities and challenges on stem CH4 emissions research in order to increase estimates of magnitudes, patterns, triggers, and trace CH4 emissions' potential origins. The first challenge would cause researchers and models to constrain magnitudes and patterns of CH4 emissions at various temporal scales, while the second challenge would require the discovery and integration of pathways and mechanisms of CH4 production and emissions that would be integrated into process-based models. The local-to-global CH4 budget could rise upscaling of CH4 emissions from trees to the ecosystem scale and quantification of stem CH4 emissions.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1484115


Increasing Methane Emissions From Natural Land Ecosystems due to Sea-Level Rise

This report analyzed the response of CH 4 emissions to sea level rise compared to modeling studies focusing on CH 4 emissions response to various land ecosystem changes. Both the annual maximum inundation extent and CH 4 emissions increased in a 22-year SLR experiment from 1993 to 2014 showed a steady increase in maximum inundation extent and CH 4 emissions at the global level, with an increase of 1. 21 10 5 km 2 in width and a rise of 3. 13 Tg CH4/year in CH 4 measurements. The SLR's rise in CH4 emissions as a result of the inundation height is largely determined by the inundation extent, but other factors such as air temperature and carbon storage also play a role. Given that SLR has a long-term increasing trend, future SLR under a changing environment may play a larger role in global CH 4 emissions.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1457767


Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock

According to new studies, existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the United States, such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions standards, are too small. We then use this updated data to determine new livestock methane emissions factors for enteric fermentation in cattle and manure management in cattle and swine.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1406780


Methane emissions from dairies in the Los Angeles Basin

We estimate the amount of methane released by the top dairies in the southern California area by combining data from four mobile solar-viewing ground-based spectrometers, in situ isotopic 13/12 CH 4 measurements from a CRDS analyzer, and a high-resolution atmospheric transport simulation using a Weather Research and Forecasting model in large-eddy simulation mode. In the near-infrared region, total CH4 and CO 2 measurements are determined by remote sensing spectrometers, obtaining data on total emissions of the Chino dairies. Differences measured between the four EM27/SUN modules ranged from 0. 2 to 22ppb, with X CH 4 and X CO 2 ranging from 0. 3 to 3ppm, respectively, between the four EM27/SUN parameters ranging from 0. 2 to 3ppm for X CH 4 and X CO 2 varying from 0. 2 to 3ppm. To determine the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the domain, Inverse modeling from WRF-LES is used.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1463494


Enhanced methane emissions from tropical wetlands during the 2011 La Niña

The atmospheric methane growth rate rises from year to year in the atmospheric methane growth rate shows a strong correlation with climatic factors. Since global surface networks began monitoring atmospheric CH4 mole fractions, second half of 2010 and the first half of 2011 saw the largest La Nia since the early 1980s. To determine the impact of this high La Nia on the global atmospheric CH 4 budget, we use these surface measurements, retrievals of column-averaged CH 4 mole fractions from GOSAT, new wetland inundation estimates, and atmospheric 13 C-CH 4 measurements.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1476481

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions