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Ponds play a larger part in the global freshwater methane budget than surface area alone, according to a forecast from surface area alone. We measured summer CH4 production, measurements, and emissions to the atmosphere in nine Alaskan wetland ponds, as well as potential physical, chemical, and biological regulators to improve our knowledge of pond CH4 dynamics. Average water column CH4 concentrations were lower in deeper ponds and at higher oxygen levels, and, as expected, they were related to diffusive emissions measured with flux chambers, as expected. In addition, pond ebullition rates were more correlated with production rates from the previous month. We also compared the ratio of ebullition to diffusive CH4 levels in our ponds and other northern lakes, which was negatively related to water depth but not positively related to Chl a Our research uncovers the causes that influence pond CH4 dynamics and shows that pond ebullition is a key CH4 source worthy of continued investigation.
We show that, despite differences in organic matter's chemical makeup, contribute to divergent microbial populations that produce methane from various metabolic pathways. Organic matter in river sediments had C/N ratios approximately 50 percent lower than in tree stems and had more diverse dissolved organic components. The increasing microbial diversity in river sediments than in tree stems, the strikingly different bacterial species, and a trend toward a fluctuating abundance of methanogen orders were likely caused by differences in testing substrate availability between river sediment and tree stems. Methane was mainly produced by CO2+reduction in tree stems by Methanobacteriales, according to the tree stem and river sediment environments, though river sediments added more methane by acetate fermentation mainly by Methanosarcinales.
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