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Metformin - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 23 April 2022

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Metformin versus sulphonylureas for new onset atrial fibrillation and stroke in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based study

Aims: The present research compares the incidence of incident atrial fibrillation, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus among metformin and sulphonylurea users. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing either sulphonylurea or metformin monotherapy between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2019. Based on demographics, CHA-DS-VASc ranking, past comorbidities, and medication use, we decided to compare sulphonylurea and metformin users. Proportions The study included a total of 36,228 sulphonylurea users and 72,456 metformin users, as well as 72,456 metformin users. Compared to metformin users, sulphonylurea users had greater risk of incident AF, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality in comparison to metformin participants. Males and patients older than 65 years with sulphonylurea use were among the most vulnerable.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-021-01841-4


Stability indicating RP-HPLC and spectrophotometric methods for determination of gliflozins in their mixture with metformin

Metformin hydrochloride is the only biguanide used alone or in combination with other antidiabetic medications, such as empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or canagliflozin to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the presence of a metformin complete oxidation degradation product, the developed HPLC method can determine MET, EMPA, DAPA, and CANA simultaneously. Mean centering of ratio spectra method at peak amplitude 236. 8 nm and 228. 6 nm, respectively, while CANA is directly determined at 290 nm.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-021-02411-9


International Regulatory Collaboration on the Analysis of Nitrosamines in Metformin-Containing Medicines

Prior to the recalls, each laboratory independently testing and analyzing multiple analytical methods to detect and measure nitrosamines in metformin drugs used in their countries. We offer an overview of the analysis of metformin active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products from 1090 samples tested beginning in November of 2019 to July of 2020. The number of batches with NDMA above the AI amount for patient safety was 17. 8% for FDF samples tested. Patients met quality and safety requirements based on these results, although the presence of NDMA was of concern, 82% of the samples of metformin drug products tested met quality and safety requirements. Regulators continue to collaborate extensively and collaborate with marketing authorization holders to determine the root causes of nitrosamine formation and agree on corrective steps to minimize the presence of NDMA in future metformin batches.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1208/s12248-022-00702-4


Diabetic patients treated with metformin during early stages of Alzheimer’s disease show a better integral performance: data from ADNI study

We reviewed the effect of the antithrombotic drug metformin on patients enrolled in the ADNI study, which looked at patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite - Utilizing results from this observational research, we conducted a principal component analysis focusing on the cognitive domain by analyzing results from neuropsychological tests included in this revised version of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite. Patients with improved cognitive function and CSF biomarkers profile were internationally recognized as patients with improved cognitive and CSF biomarkers profiles than the mean population of MCI patients, according to MCI Metformin-treated patients. We found that MCI + T2D patients had a poor cognitive outcome compared to MCI patients, but this deleterious effect was not present in MCI + T2D + metformin patients.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-022-00568-6


The effect of additional acarbose on metformin-associated artificially high ^18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in positron emission tomography/computed tomography

The patients receiving PET/CT were classified as metformin plus acarbose owners, metformin users, and control subjects without diabetes. In group MA and group M than group M, the FDG uptake of the small intestine was significantly higher than in group M and group M, but not so significant for SUVmean, although not significant for SUVmean. The addition of acarbose to metformin therapy reduced SUV and numerically high FDG uptake in the colon, and may be a viable alternative to discontinuing metformin therapy in patients going to PET/CT imaging.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00592-022-01890-3


The role of AMPK-dependent pathways in cellular and molecular mechanisms of metformin: a new perspective for treatment and prevention of diseases

Metformin can inhibit gluconeogenesis and blood sugar production by stimulating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and inducing small heterodimer partner expression in liver cells, as well as reducing blood glucose levels. AMPK is a heterothermic serine/threonine kinase made of a catalytic alpha subunit and two subunits of beta, as well as a gamma regulator. If this ratio is high, the amino acid threonine 172, which is present in alpha chains, will be stimulated by phosphorylated liver kinase B1, triggering AMPK activation. Metformin can be very useful in changing the cells' proliferation and differentiation pathways, as well as the prevention and treatment of certain diseases due to the activation of AMPK and its role in several subcellular signalling pathways.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-022-00980-6


Evaluation for clinical benefit of metformin in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a national claims-based cohort analysis

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common comorbid disease among patients with IPF and is often treated with metformin, the first-line agent in T2DM's management. This report intends to determine the clinical value of metformin in patients with IPF and T2DM. A final 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort compared 1100 patients with IPF and T2DM receiving metformin to those with both diagnoses and non-respondents with metformin; matching included age, sex, race/ethnicity, residence area, year, medications, oxygen use, healthcare use, and comorbidities. Results Among the 2200 patients with IPF and T2DM included in this matched review, metformin therapy was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality and hospitalizations compared to patients not receiving metformin. Conclusions 1 - Metformin therapy may have increased clinical outcomes in patients with IPF and T2DM.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-022-02001-0


Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antiapoptotic Action of Metformin Attenuates Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Animal Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Fetal alcohol exposure has long-term effects on the brain and brain, resulting in functional deficits in a variety of areas of life, including learning and memory. Metformin is the first-line treatment for diabetic patients. We investigated metformin's protective effects on ethanol-related neuroinflammation and neuron apoptosis in adult male rats' hippocampus in an animal model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in this research. At 2–10 days after birth, the first treatment of ethanol in milk solution was administered by intragastric intubation. To determine the tumor necrosis factor- and antioxidant enzyme concentrations, an ELISA assay was carried out to determine metformin's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Metformin led to a significant rise in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide activity, based on the results. Following an animal model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, apoptotic signaling, which is limited by the oxidative inflammatory cascade, can be reduced by metformin in adult brain rats.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12640-022-00499-2


Design and optimization of metformin hydrophobic ion pairs for efficient encapsulation in polymeric drug carriers

It's a challenging challenge to convert small molecular weight hydrophilic drugs into polymeric carriers. Metformin hydrochloride is a small soluble oral antidiabetic drug with a low cationic charge and a small pore. A hydrphobic ion pair is a step toward reverse modulation of solubility and hydrophilicity of water-soluble drugs by intermixation with oppositely charged molecules. Herein, we developed MET ion pairs and rigorously investigated and characterized MET interactions with various ligands in the hopes of raising MET lipophilicity and loading efficiency. Although complexes had various interaction strengths, the greater stability of TA/MET resulted in unfavorable poor MET dissociation.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09384-6


Metformin Ameliorates Hepatic Steatosis induced by olanzapine through inhibiting LXRα/PCSK9 pathway

Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 is involved in NAFLD pathogenesis, and metformin can significantly reduce circulating PCSK9. For olanzapine-associated NAFLD, the aim of this research was to investigate the role of PCSK9 and find the therapeutic effects of metformin. In mouse livers and HepG2 and AML12 cells, Olanzapine successfully reduced PCSK9 and promoted lipid accumulation. In olanzapine-induced NAFLD, the PCSK9 upstream regulator liver X receptor was greatly reduced. According to the LXR antagonist therapy and LXR' overexpression, which resulted in a decrease and rise in PCSK9, respectively. In addition, we discovered that LXR overexpression impaired the effect of metformin on PCSK9 levels and intracellular lipid droplet formation. Our results show that olanzapine enhances hepatic PCSK9 expression by upregulating LXR, raising FAS and SCD1 expression, reducing SCAD and PPAR, and encouraging fat accumulation, which is later reduced by metformin.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09610-1

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions