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Metformin - DOAJ

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Last Updated: 23 April 2022

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A concealed history behind the disaster: Extremely rare presentations of metformin toxicity in a patient with body dysmorphic disorder

Metformin is a commonly used anti-hyperglycemic agent with weight loss properties, but it has its specific toxicity and adverse effects when used in large doses and in patients with renal impairment, which is rare. Regardless, every manifestation of the patient was investigated exhaustively in the new and available medical literature, this is the first case of metformin toxicity in a patient with body dysmorphic disorder with extremely unusual characteristics of this intoxication.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2022.04.004


Metformin overcomes metabolic reprogramming-induced resistance of skin squamous cell carcinoma to photodynamic therapy

We explored the role of the Warburg effect in skin squamous cell carcinoma resistance to photodynamic therapy. Methods: We've used two human SCC cell lines SCC13 and A431, both called parental, and from these cell lines we've grown the corresponding PDT resistant cells. Here, we show that 10GT cells induced metabolic reprogramming leading to enhanced aerobic glycolysis and reduced oxidative phosphorylation, which could influence PDT's response. In 10GT sSCC cells treated with metformin, there was a decrease in aerobic glycolysis and an increase in oxidative phosphorylation. Eventually, the combination of metformin and PDT also improved the cytotoxic properties on P and 10GT cells, which was confirmed by the enzyme system. In xenografts of P and 10GT SCC13 cells, the greater efficacy of combined therapy was also seen in vivo. Metformin, therefore, could be a good adjuvant for PDT in sSCC.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2022.101496


Does metformin reduce excess birthweight in offspring of obese pregnant women? A randomised controlled trial of efficacy, exploration of mechanisms and evaluation of other pregnancy complications

Background: Maternal obesity is associated with increased birthweight, obesity, and premature death in adult offspring, largely as a result of maternal hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The results of a trial that was designed to establish the possibility that metformin would raise insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the risk of high-birthweight babies. Objective: To determine the efficacy of metformin given to obese pregnant women in reducing the gestational age, parity, and sex-adjusted birthweight centile of the baby. Participants: Pregnant women aged 16 years with a singleton fetus and a body mass index of 30 kg/m2. p = 0. 7597]: Metformin's estimated effect on the primary outcome was non-significant [adjusted mean difference in z-score from 0. 39, 95% confidence interval – 0. 159 to 0. 158] [adjusted mean difference in z-score –0. 029, 95% confidence interval – 0. 159, 0. 158]. Compared to those taking placebo and enhanced endogenous glucose production, subjected to increased insulin sensitivity [glucose disposal per unit plasma insulin difference] during high-dose insulin 0. 02 mg/kg, 95 percent CI 0. 08 to 1. 04 mg/kg/minute/minute; p = 0. 04]. Conclusions: Metformin has no clinically significant effect on the birthweight percentile in obese pregnant women. The children born to participants in the trial's trial will be tested to see whether or not there are any long-term benefits or harms of maternal metformin for offspring obesity, fat mass, or metabolism.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3310/eme03070


Molecular Evidence on the Inhibitory Potential of Metformin against Chlorpyrifos-Induced Neurotoxicity

Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide that causes a variety of health problems as a result of ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption, and contributes to DNA damage and elevated oxidative stress. Metformin, a form of Galega officinalis, has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity; as a result, this research was conducted to investigate metformin's potential role in neurotoxicity in Wistar rats under sub-acute exposure to CPF. Animals were divided into nine groups and were treated with various combinations of metformin and CPF in this study. Brain tissues were separated following the 28 days of CPF and metformin therapy. The amounts of inflammatory biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1, as well as the expression of 5HT1 and 5HT2 genes, were investigated. The purpose of metformin in reducing the listed biomarkers can be reduced significantly as a result of CPF toxicity, according to this research.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10040197


Transdermal Delivery of Metformin Using Dissolving Microneedles and Iontophoresis Patches for Browning Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

While current anti-obesity drugs have various complications, it has been suggested that turning energy-storing white adipose tissue into energy-burning brown-like/beige adipose tissue, or WAT's so-called browning, has been shown to improve obesity treatment effectiveness with minimized side effects, especially in the case of browning. Metformin, according to emerging research, could raise energy expenditure by the browning of WAT and hence reduce body mass. Subcutaneous WAT is quicker to access and has a greater browning rate than other WAT depots, and has a higher browning rate than other WAT depots. MN + INT had better anti-obesity activity, as shown by decreasing body weight and fat gain, increased energy intake, reduced fat pad size, and increased energy metabolism through WAT's browning. Browning's subcutaneous WAT by giving metformin and other browning agents with this MN + INT strategy could help with obesity management in a cost-effective, simple, and safe way.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14040879


Biological Properties of Transition Metal Complexes with Metformin and Its Analogues

Metformin, a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes, is widely used. Biguanides are known as excellent N-donor bidentate ligands and quickly form complexes with virtually all transition metals. With metformin and its analogues, we were prompted to summarize the existing scientific findings on the synthetic strategy and biological properties of several metal complexes. We reported that coordinating biologically active biguanides with various metal centers resulted in improved pharmacological results, as well as a broader range of activities.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15040453


A Clinical Perspective of the Multifaceted Mechanism of Metformin in Diabetes, Infections, Cognitive Dysfunction, and Cancer

Metformin, a plant-based or plant-derived medicinal drug used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes for more than 60 years, has been a World Health Organization essential drug. Metformin altered immune response by directly decreasing neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and improving immune cell phagocytic function. Metformin has been shown to reduce cardiovascular-renal events, infection, cancer, cognitive dysfunction, and all-cause diabetes in type 2 diabetes, according to both clinical and mechanistic studies, making this low-cost medication a useful aid in individualizing other glucose-lowering drugs in type 2 diabetes. New research into metformin's effects on cognitive function, infection, and cancer, especially in people without diabetes, will reveal new insights into metformin's therapeutic value in our search of prevention and treatment of ageing-related diseases as well as acute and chronic illnesses beyond diabetes.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15040442


A Co-Doped Carbon Dot/Silver Nanoparticle Nanocomposite-Based Fluorescence Sensor for Metformin Hydrochloride Detection

We first used the NPCD's decreasing size to help AgNPs from Ag + to prepare AgNPs from Ag +, then prepare NPCD/AgNP nanocomposites. To measure MFH, we used the NPCD's improved fluorescence as well as the overlap between the fluorescence emission spectrum of the NPCDs and the AgNP absorption spectrum. In comparison to those of pure NPCDs, the IFE between NPCDs and AgNPs in the nanocomposite material resulted in a drastic decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the nanocomposites.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081297


The Impact of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Metformin on Pancreatic Cancer Chemoresistance: A Pathway towards Individualized Therapy

Pancreatic ducto carcinoma adenocarcinoma is one of the most common neoplastic diseases worldwide, despite a dismal prognostic outcome. In the present paper, we discuss metformin's latest findings on metformin as a potential neoadjuvant chemotherapy agent, which influences EMT progression and potentially improves PDAC patient outcomes. Our key findings reveal that selectively suppressing EMT in pancreatic cancer cells has a promising therapeutic outcome by selectively targeting the cancer-resistant subpopulation of tumor stem cells, inhibiting tumor formation by EMT pathways, and ultimately improving PDAC patients' remission. In addition, the chemoprevention of TGF-1-induced EMT generates tumor-initiating cells by specifically linking abnormal cell motility acquisition with tumor initiating potency maintenance can have promising clinical applications in the therapeutic management of PDAC outcomes.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58040467


Incidence and Survival Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Long-Term Metformin Users with Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using a Common Data Model

Background and goals: Previous studies have shown that metformin use in diabetic patients with diabetes mellitus can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer incidence and prognosis; however, the results are not definite. Using a standard data model of the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from 2002 to 2013, this population-based cohort study sought to determine if metformin reduced the risk of CRC incidence and prognosis in diabetic patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients who used metformin for at least six months were classified as metformin users. The chance of CRC infection in metformin users was significantly lower than in non-users in the pro-poor cohort. Metformin users' mortality was significantly lower than in non-users; CRC-related mortality was also lower among metformin users; Conclusions: Metformin use was associated with a reduced risk of CRC infection and improved overall survival.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12040584

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions