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Metastatic gangliomas are extra-adrenal tumors with similar genetic and molecular profiles with metastatic pheochromocytomas, and, in turn, these tumors are studied together. The immune system is absent in any other cancers, adrenocortical tumors, and metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. The findings of clinical trials with checkpoint inhibitors for adrenocortical carcinoma or metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma are limited; however, clinical trials with checkpoint inhibitors for adrenocortical carcinoma or metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma show no benefit; however, their findings also show novel strategies that could improve clinical responses to checkpoint inhibitors. These methods include tumor normalization, modification of the hormonal environment, and vaccination with specific tumor antigens.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030467
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