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Antibiotic resistance gene pollution in the environment has been identified as a potential contributor to antibiotic resistance worldwide, increasing the need to identify and quantify environmental reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. Although this has never been thoroughly investigated, many polluted environments have been found to have elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes, agriculturally based pesticide bioremediation methods, or 'biobeds' may act as environmental reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35366344
In a soil microcosm experiment, the effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors were estimated. The abundances of ARGs and VFs in polybutylene succinate treated soils were statistically higher than those in conventional microplastic treatments and conventional microplastic treatments, according to a study by the author. In comparison to the control, conventional microplastics' use in the soil had negligible effects on ARG and VF profiles, while biodegradable microplastic amendments significantly changed the compositions of ARGs and VFs. Microplastics were found in the soil, according to the host-tracking study, broadening the bacterial hosts of ARGs and VFs. Proteobacteria as ARG hosts increased from 38. 5% in the control soils to 58. 2% in microplastic exposed soil. In biodegradable microplastic therapies, the genus Bradyrhizobium was the predominant host of ARGs and VFs, while conventional microplastics increased the percentages of Pseudomonas as the bacterial hosts, with bacterial hosts increasing.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35302032
Both high throughput and host differentiation is required for both high throughput and host differentiation. The large number of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and the varying health risks as a result of their association with various bacterial hosts, as well as their association with various bacterial hosts requires environmental ARG risk assessment to ensure the correct balance between bacterial infection genes and host characteristics. With the prevalence of resistance phenotypes of the E. coli isolates, a population of cattle manure was shown by a population metagenomic approach, which revealed the co-location of multiple ARGs on the same MGEs and their correlation to the prevalence of resistance phenotypes of the E. coli isolates. The E. coli population metagenomes demonstrated a strikingly different resistanceome and a general higher relative abundance of ARGs and horizontal gene transfer risks when compared to direct mNGs of the cattle manure samples. With the E. coli population's blood samples, the validity of this strategy was shown, with ARGs found in the E. coli population matching the observed resistance phenotypes and co-location of multiple ARGs with common mobile genetic elements.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35285243
Background Information The microbially rich sludge environment of wastewater treatment plants could contribute to antibiotic resistance gene transfer. Through long-read sequencing, we determined ARGs' fate in the activated sludge treatment by comparing their abundance, genetic origins, mobility, and bacterial hosts within activated sludge samples from five WWTPs from three continents. The abundance of plasmid-associated ARGs decreased at four of five WWTPs, among ARGs colocated with transposable, integrative, and conjugative element hallmark genes showed similar trends. At two WWTPs, ARG-associated elements decreased by 0. 35-13. 82%, but integrated and transposable elements displayed marginal increases. Although resistome and taxonomic compositions changed dramatically, host phyla for chromosomal ARG classes remained relatively stable, suggesting vertical gene exchange via active biomass growth in activated sludge as the primary route of chromosomal ARG dissemination.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35093160
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