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The relationship between energy expenditures and energy intake ultimately determines body mass. Resting EE is the key component of total EE in an adult human being. Healthy young men can raise EE by 17 percent of the basal metabolic rate by a process of non-shivering thermogenesis, according to an ongoing research of environmental temperature changes within and around the thermoneutral zone. For example, only recently has it been discovered that brown adipose tissue is still present in adult humans and that white adipose tissue can be converted to brown-adipose-like tissue to raise heat production during cold exposures. In addition, skeletal muscle is likely to participate in cold-induced thermogenesis long before overt shivering occurs. Even modest changes in EE, if not compensated by changes in food intake, may be contributing to body weight control and thus contribute to the current obesity epidemic: even small changes in EE can have long-term effects on body weight, and may lead to body weight regulation. Since the key physiological stimulant for BAT is via the sympathetic nervous system, beta-adrenergic receptors may play important roles in regulating human EE. The explanation is that previous studies of the effects of drugs on EE in humans haven't always strictly enforced the use of thermoneutral conditions, contributing to inconsistent results.
Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01950520
In patients awaiting bariatric surgery for obesity, the aim of this research is to determine the effects of a structured, personalized 4-week exercise program on resting fitness and metabolic rate. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery who participate in a preoperative exercise program may have attenuated changes in functional capacity and metabolic rate compared to standard care, as well as changes in autonomic regulation and medium-term postoperative weight loss, according to the hypothesis. The investigators have suggested a randomised controlled trial that will enroll 70 patients with obesity who have been scheduled for bariatric surgery at UCLH, Whittington Health NHS Trust, and Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. After surgery in terms of weight loss, the investigators will continue to track each participant's journey through surgery to see if the exercise intervention caused any difference between the two groups. Baseline data collection will begin about six weeks before surgery, as detailed below.
Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05235945
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