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Meningitis - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 23 June 2022

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Induction-phase treatment costs for cryptococcal meningitis in high HIV-burden African countries: New opportunities with lower costs

Amphotericin B, a naturally low price, has been recently announced, as well as lower prices for flucytosine and possibly lower liposomal amphotericin B, providing an opportunity to lower CM treatment costs in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We created an Excel-based cost estimator to estimate health system care costs for CM during a two-week induction phase for several treatment combinations, making it more cost-effective for CM with increased access to flucytosine and AmB-L. CM treatment costs include medications, laboratory experiments, and other hospital-based costs. AmB-D and fluconazole inpatient AmB-D with flucytosine for seven days, then seven days of high-dose fluconazole as an outpatient will cost health services less than a 14-day hospital stay with AmB-D and fluconazole. If daily AmB-L replaces AmB-D for those with baseline renal dysfunction, with a price tag of $50 or less per 50 mg vial, incremental costs would still be less than the AmB-D with fluconazole regimen.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR508164


Clinical features and risk factors of surgical site infections in HIV-negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis undergoing ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations: a retrospective study

Background: We want to know the clinical characteristics and risk factors of ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related surgical site infections in HIV-negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of HIV-negative patients with CM during a VPS surgery admitted to Sun Yat-Sen University in Southwest China over the past 7 years. Patients with SSIs also tended to be shorter preoperative preparation times than patients without SSIs. Patients in the SSIs group and 25% in the no-SSIs group underwent VPS procedures within three days after admission. Patients with SSIs experienced more fever; central nervous system complaints; increased PCT value; and lower cerebrospinal fluid glucose in comparison to the no-SSIs group. SSIs was one of the first surgical complications after VPS surgery, according to the author. Patients with elevated fever, elevated PCT, and low CSF glucose should be given more attention.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR507873


Incidence and aetiology of infant Gram-negative bacteraemia and meningitis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

We conducted meta-analyses of the incidence of Gram-negative bacteraemia and individual Gram-negative bacteria as proportions of all infant bacteraemia, stratified by age and country income. In LMIC, Gram-negatives had a larger share of all infant bacteraemia than in HIC compared to HIC. Infant Gram-negative bacteraemia incidence was 2. 01 per 1000 live births, which was five times higher in LMIC compared to HIC. Escherichia coli was the most common cause of late-onset bacteraemia in HIC, accounting for 19. 2% of all late-onset bacteraemia and 7. 3% of all late-onset bacteraemia; Klebsiella spp was the next most common cause of late-onset bacteraemia. Klebsiella spp caused 16. 4% of early and 15. 0% of late-onset bacteraemia in LMIC, followed by E. coli and Pseudomonas spp. Conclusion E. coli, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas spp accounts for 20%-28% of early-onset infant meningitis worldwide, with 14% cases of infant meningitis. Implementation of preventive steps could reduce the prevalence of Gram-negative bacteraemia in LMICs.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35710719


Effect of IL-10 in the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

Patients were divided into four groups: group A, group B, C, and group D. No significant difference was made between group A and other groups on the IL-10 level in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. According to group A, IFN-u03b3, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-6; group B, IL-12, IL-4; and IL-6; and IL-6; and IL-6; and IL-8; and CD8. IL-10 and related CSF metrics included group A, TNF-u03b1, white blood cells, and total protein; group B, TNF-u03b1, IL-4, and lactate dehydrogenase; and group D, IFN-u03b3 and IL-4; and lactate dehydrogenase; and IL-4.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35708865


Health care-associated meningitis: Clinical epidemiology and predictor for 90-day mortality

Aims: To announce the clinical determinor and epidemiology of patients with health care-associated meningitis, as well as the start of a survival study to screen mortality predictors. 900 ham patients from 3244 cases of cerebrospinal fluid culture positivity were selected for epidemiology and survival study, with 900 ham patients from 3244 cases of cerebrospinal fluid culture positivity. People with HAM had a 90-day mortality of 12. 4%. In therapy, the results of patients receiving three or more antibiotic combinations are higher than those receiving dual-drug combinations.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR506893


Serotypes and Serogroups implicated in Bacterial meningitis across Ghana

Background Bacterial meningitis is a common disease that can kill both children and adults alike. Despite the discovery of polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines in recent years [1]], an estimated 1. 2 million cases of bacterial meningitis are expected to occur globally each year. The aim of the investigation was to determine which bacteria isolates are related to meningitis and how to compare the culture procedure to the rT-PCR method. Methods This research examined data on bacterial meningitis in the Ghana Health Serviceu2019s Public Health Division from 2015 to 2019. Conclusions There were 2,446 CSM cases reported in total, but 34. 4 percent were confirmed. ndendetails' emergence of new strains of bacterial meningitis and false negative findings attributed to the culture method's culture process are concerning.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR505505


An In Vivo Model of Echovirus-Induced Meningitis Defines the Differential Roles of Type I and Type III Interferon Signaling in Central Nervous System Infection.

However, ablation of type I, but not III, interferon signaling in mice expressing human FcRn increased echovirus replication in the brain, leading to a variety of health signs, such as delayed motor skills and hind-limb weakness. This research establishes an in vivo model of aseptic meningitis due to echovirus infections in echovirus-associated neuronal disease that delineates the different roles of type I and type III IFNs in echovirus-associated neuronal disease as well as the specificity of echovirus-associated neuronal disease in the meninges. This aspect of echovirus pathogenesis is poorly understood by the path by which echoviruses infect the brain, largely due to the lack of robust in vivo models that recapitulate this aspect of echovirus pathogenesis. To recapitulate echovirus-induced meningitis and clinical disease, we need a neonatal mouse model of echovirus-induced aseptic meningitis and show that the FcRn, the primary receptor for echoviruses, is needed.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35699446


Gardnerella vaginalis purulent meningitis in an adolescent male: a case report.

A young boy's cerebrospinal fluid contained a rare case of Gardnerella vaginalis. Presentation of Case A 14-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with headache, vomiting, fever, drowsiness, and positive meningeal irritation signs on examination. The white blood cell and protein levels were elevated in Cerebrospinal fluid, although glucose was low, and the cerebrospinal fluid revealed white blood cell and protein were elevated, while carbon dioxide was low. No organisms were found in CSF's traditional aerobic and anaerobic culture. Conclusions Purulent meningitis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis is extremely unusual.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35690718


Evaluation of GeneXpert EV assay for the rapid diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

GeneXpert enterovirus Assay is a PCR-based assay for Enterovirus meningitis diagnosis. However, there is currently no evidence regarding the effectiveness of GeneXpert enterovirus assay in the diagnosis of enterovirus meningitis. Only studies that compared GeneXpert enterovirus assay and RT-PCR were included in an English survey, and could be formulated in a 2*2 table. The effect of the GeneXpert enterovirus assay was determined by the Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Likelihood Ratio, Negative Likelihood Ratio, Diagnosis Odds Ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristic curve. Positive Likelihood Ratio was 0. 96 [95% CI ], Pooled Specificity was 0. 99 [95% CI ], Positive Likelihood Ratio was 0. 69 [95% CI ], Positive Likelihood Ratio was 0. 46 [95% CI ], Positive Likelihood Ratio was 0. 01 [95% CI ], Negative Likelihood Ratio was 0. 04 [95% CI ], Positive Likel ] 0. 9980, and Q*= 0. 9849, which was in SROC Curve, Area Under Curve, was 0. 9980, and Q*= 0. 9849. Conclusions The GeneXpert enterovirus assay has a high diagnostic success in diagnosing enterovirus meningitis.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35681153

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions