Advanced searches left 3/3

Medulloblastoma - Springer Nature

Summarized by Plex Scholar
Last Updated: 24 September 2022

* If you want to update the article please login/register

Failure of human rhombic lip differentiation underlies medulloblastoma formation

In the upper rhombic lip granule cell lineage 5 u2013 8 mutations that initiate Sonic hedgehog signalling result in Sonic hedgehog MB. WNT MB in the lower RL 9, 10 compared to WNT MB in the lower RL. CBFA2T3, PRDM6, UTX, and OTX2 are all affecting CBFA2T2, CBFA2T3, PRDM6, UTX, and OTX2. We're able to show that somatic mutations that result in G4 MB converge on the determining determinant factor alpha complex and mutually exclusive alterations that cause G4 ; OTX2 model systems' downswade, which allows MB cells to spontaneously develop according to established developmental differentiation trajectories. The underlying cause of group 4 medulloblastoma, the most common childhood brain tumour, is a lack of human-specific progenitors of the developing cerebellar rhombic lip.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05215-w


Unified rhombic lip origins of group 3 and group 4 medulloblastoma

Here we investigate the origins of medulloblastoma subgroups of the human cerebellum by using multi-omics. DNA signatures encoded within a human rhombic-lip-derived lineage trajectory in group 3 and group 4 medulloblastoma are consistent with photoreceptor and unipolar forest cell expression profiles, indicating a convergencent basis. A systematic diagnostic-imaging review of a prospective institutional cohort revealed the nodulus' putative anatomical source of group 3 and group 4 tumours. Our findings link the morphological and phenotypic characteristics of clinically resistant medulloblastoma subgroups of the rhombic lip in the early stages of human growth's development. According to multi-omic mapping, group 3 and group 4 medulloblastomas have a common, human-specific developmental origin in the cerebellar rhombic lip, providing a basis for their ambiguous molecular structure and overlapping anatomic location, as well as the difficulty of modeling these tumours in mice.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05208-9


Immunohistochemical staining of LEF-1 is a useful marker for distinguishing WNT-activated medulloblastomas

Objects: Objectives: To investigate lymphoid enhancer factor 1 protein expression in medulloblastomas and its correlation with molecular grouping of MBs. Three out of eight out of 8 affected diffuse and robust nuclear LEF-1 staining, which were shown to be WNT-activated genetically, while the remaining 5 MBs with focal staining were SHH-activated genetically. In 5 MBs, we also found a single nuclear u03b2-catenin expression. LEF-1 positivity was highly correlated to nuclear u03b2-catenin expression. Conclusions Immunohistochemical staining of LEF-1 can be used as a supplement to diagnosis WNT-activated Medulloblastomas when u03b2-catenin is difficult to detect due to its cytoplasm/membrane staining background.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13000-022-01250-3


Posterior fossa syndrome in a population of children and young adults with medulloblastoma: a retrospective, multicenter Italian study on incidence and pathophysiology in a histologically homogeneous and consecutive series of 136 patients

Introduction Posterior fossa syndrome is a group of debilitating disorders that can arise after abdominal fossa tumor surgery. This research was designed to determine the preoperative radiological and surgical risk factors for the onset of PFS in a histologically homogeneous group of children with medulloblastoma and compare it to a similar group of young adults. Patients underwent posterior fossa surgery for medulloblastoma at 11 Italian neurosurgical wards, and were referred to Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan for postoperative care. According to compare variables, we used the Mann and Fisher tests for continuous and categorical variables to compare the distribution of variables. In children who had PFS, radiological evidence of involvement of the right superior or middle cerebellar peduncles seemed more frequent in children who developed PFS. The study of a cohort of young adults may shed further light on the often overlooked presence of PFS in non-pediatric patients.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-022-04072-x


Pediatric pituitary adenoma and medulloblastoma in the setting of p53 mutation: case report and review of the literature

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a cancer predisposition disorder that occurs with various tumor types. We discuss the case of a 6-year-old boy who was first diagnosed with a pituitary adenoma that was successfully treated with surgery. Pituitary adenoma is not the first central nervous manifestation of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, according to the latest literature. To help identify cancer predisposing disorders, early genetic testing should be performed in pediatric patients with such rare tumor types to help identify cancer predisposing conditions. Further, as shown by our study, the diagnosis of multiple brain tumors in the pediatric population is also difficult.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-022-05478-8


The Circular RNA circSKA3 Facilitates the Malignant Biological Behaviors of Medulloblastoma via miR-520 h/CDK6 Pathway

In this research, a total of 15 cases of medulloblastoma were found. Daoy cells were used to create cell models. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction determined the expression of circSKA3, microRNA-520 h, and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 mRNA in tissues or cells. To determine CDK6 protein expression, a Western blot was used. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle were determined by using cell cytometry and flow cytometry in the Transwell assay and cell cycle studies of circSKA3. The relationship between circSKA3 and miR-520 h was established, as well as between miR-520 h and CDK6 was investigated by a double-luciferase reporter gene array. The expression in medulloblastoma tissues was negatively connected to miR-520 h expression and positively related to CDK6 expression, and was positively correlated with CDK6 expression. MiR-520 h down-modulation or CDK6 overexpression, according to u201cRescueu201d experiments, counteracted the inhibitory effect of circSKA3's knockdown of Daoy cells by a 1% reduction.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12033-022-00466-4


Single-cell DNA sequencing identifies risk-associated clonal complexity and evolutionary trajectories in childhood medulloblastoma development

We reconstructed the natural history and temporal evolution of the most common childhood brain tumor disease, medulloblastoma, by single-cell whole-genome sequencing of tumors representing its key molecular sub-classes and risk groups. In contrast, the most clonally diverse and showed steady evolutionary progress. sc-WGS published novel events that emerged later and/or sub-clonally and more commonly display spatial diversity; their clinical value and role in disease evolution post-diagnosis now require establishment.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-022-02464-x


Utilizing Carbon Ions to Treat Medulloblastomas that Exhibit Chromothripsis

Oncology research has shown promising results. Purpose of Review Original purpose of Review The aim of this study has shown promising progress. More Details Our research has been published: We discuss the use of carbon ion radiotherapy to treat a particular type of benign pediatric brain tumors, namely medulloblastomas with chromothripsis.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40778-022-00213-0


Adult medulloblastoma: a case report

Background Medulloblastoma is a benign brain tumor that is common in children but not so prevalent in adults, especially those older than 40 years, accounting for less than 1% of adult primary brain tumors. This is the first case of adult medulloblastoma at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Tanzania. Case description This case study is based on the following: We present the case of a 51-year-old female of African descent who was hospitalized with high-risk hemispheric posterior cranial fossa medulloblastoma of a classic type with World Health Organization central nervous system grade 4 and Chang stage M0. Conclusion Conclusions Even in adults over 50 years old, medulloblastoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of posterior fossa tumor. Adult medulloblastoma therapy is particularly uneven within hospitals. Although craniospinal radiation therapy improves survival, there is still no agreement on the role of chemotherapy in treating adult MB.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-022-03531-3

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions