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Medulloblastoma - Crossref

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Last Updated: 24 September 2022

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A patient with medulloblastoma in its early developmental stage

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and is classified as an embryonal tumor. Since each subgroup is distinct and there is no overlap, it has been suggested that medulloblastomas be grouped into four distinct molecular subgroups. Because the tumor volume was so small, the medulloblastoma was considered to be in an early developmental stage. The tumor stained only for DKK1 or NPR3 stained, with no overlap between the two groups of the tumor stained, namely, DKK1 and NPR3, with no overlap between the two groups u2014 (that is, DKK1 and NPR3) were mutually exclusive; however, DKK1 and NPR3 expression were mutually exclusive. There were two distinct types of cells that showed monosomy or disomy of chromosome 6, according to fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome 6, which displayed monosomy or disomy of chromosome 6. Our results in this situation indicate that early-stage medulloblastoma may contain more than one specific subtype, as well as insights into the causes and development of medulloblastomas.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2014.8.peds13590


Cognitive disorders in pediatric medulloblastoma: what neuroimaging has to offer

Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant childhood brain tumors arising in the posterior fossa. In addition, children with medulloblastoma have cerebellar lesions but also brain white matter damage as a result of radiation and chemotherapy. This review will explore functional neuroimaging studies in children with medulloblastoma and explore more specifically cognitive sequelae. The posterior cerebellar lobes, according to this report, are vital to maintaining cognitive function.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2014.5.peds13571


Differences in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor expression and correlation with the degree of enhancement in medulloblastoma

Object Vascular endothelial growth factor is the primary proangiogenic factor in several solid tumors. In pediatric patients with medulloblastoma, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor is present in high abundance, and it is connected with tumor metastasis, poor prognosis, and proliferation. The growth of Gadolinium enhancement on MRI has been shown to have prognostic significance for certain tumors. Unlikely, the medulloblastoma association of VEGF/VEGFR and Gd enhancement has never been investigated closely. The authors also wanted to see if Gd-enhancing medulloblastomas had elevated levels of VEGFR and CD31. Patients with transforming and non-enhancing tumors were also compared to outcomes and survival. Results Fifty-eight patients were analyzed, with 20. 7% of the medulloblastomas in those patients not increasing. Conclusions These results show that increased vascularity and angiogenesis in patients with medulloblastoma can be correlated with improved vascularity and angiogenesis, but not necessarily lead to worse patient prognosis in the short or long term.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2014.4.peds13244


Clinical implications of medulloblastoma subgroups: incidence of CSF diversion surgery

In each of the subgroups of medulloblastoma, the authors detail the incidence of CSF diversion surgery. Prior or within 60 days of tumor resection, the primary outcome was the need for CSF diversion surgery. Patients in the Wnt subgroup had a reduced risk of CSF diversion in comparison to all other patients combined. CONCLUSIONS The CSF diversion surgery rate for Shh, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas is about 30%, but no patients in the current series with a Wnt medulloblastoma required shunting were involved. The low incidence of hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastoma may be a combination of host factors and disease causes. Without a hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastomas, they have an elevated rate of life in those subgroups, which may also contribute to a higher quality of life.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2014.9.peds14280


Expression of MAGE and GAGE genes in medulloblastoma and modulation of resistance to chemotherapy

Object Cancer testis antigens were first demonstrated by their ability to elicit autologous T-cell responses in patients with melanoma. MAGE proteins were identified and analyzed in human MB cell lines and specimens by the authors. In addition, a correlation was established between the expression of MAGE and GAGE genes and the sensitivity of MB cells to chemotherapy agents. Caspase-3 was found in UW426/MAGE small interfering RNA-u2013-inhibited cells treated with cisplatin, but not in UW426 cells treated with cisplatin alone at the same concentration. Conclusions MAGE and GAGE family members are present in MB cell lines and samples, and inhibition of MAGE and GAGE genes by siRNA causes apoptosis of MB cells and exposes them to certain chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin and etoposide.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/ped/2008/1/4/305


Postoperative hemicerebellar inflammation mimicking recurrent tumor after resection of a medulloblastoma

u2713: The authors discuss the case of a 4-year-old boy in whose medulloblastoma in the left cerebellar hemisphere was successfully surgically resected with no evidence of residual tumor on the postoperative magnetic resonance images. Some contrast enhancements were apparent in the left cerebellar hemisphere, but the lesion had barely disappeared in this third postoperative MR imaging study, which was performed for evaluation of the craniospinal axis ten days after the second postoperative study. On MR photographs obtained after resection of a medulloblastoma, early postoperative inflammation can mimic recurrent tumors, this case illustrates how early postoperative inflammation can mimic recurrent tumor formation, and caution should be exercised in interpreting such images.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/ped/2008/1/4/330


Prediction of prognosis in children with medulloblastoma by using immunohistochemical analysis and tissue microarray

Object Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant neuroepithelial tumor found in children. Methods The data used were collected in 58 patients with medulloblastoma and in whom > 1 year of follow-up was available after the maximal resection, craniospinal irradiation, and chemotherapy treatments were all available. Conclusions There was no statistically significant correlation between the prognosis and the degree of cell differentiation, but a positive correlation was found between the PI and the AI in a tumor mass. In the group of tumors in patients with recurrent medulloblastoma, the number of cases with a PI > 10% was much higher. Conclusions: The authors' arguments argue that the PI is directly related to the prognostic factor for medulloblastoma and that immunohistochemical staining is a potentially useful tool for determining patients with medulloblastoma.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/ped/2008/1/3/196


Variation in the BRCA2 gene in a child with medulloblastoma and a family history of breast cancer

BRCA genes' activity as tumor suppressors is evident from the genetics of the various human disorders caused by inheritance mutations. In the patient with medulloblastoma and a healthy father, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were sequenced in the patient with medulloblastoma and the healthy father. In the healthy father, An Asn372His homozygous variation was detected in the BRCA2 gene in the patient with medulloblastoma, but in the healthy child, the difference was heterozygous. For further delineation of BRCA gene mutations and their connection to medulloblastoma formation, as well as the clinical consequences of these disorders, further research in large human populations with medulloblastoma is required.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2011.8.peds11210


Risk factors for development of postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome in children after medulloblastoma surgery

OBJECTIVE Postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome affects 7%–u201351% of children following cerebellar tumor surgery. Chronic efferent cerebellar pathway involvement is the most significant causal factor, contributing to temporary cerebral cortical dysfunction as a result of diaschisis. The primary aim was on factors that could account for the delayed onset of pCMS and therefore provided a time window for taking precautionary steps to prevent pCMS or minimize its severity. METHODS IN this single-center retrospective cohort study The authors included 71 children with medulloblastoma, 28 of whom developed pCMS following primary resection. The pCMS group's first four days after surgery in the pCMS group, tumor size, maximum tumor diameter > 5 cm, tumor infiltration or compression of the brainstem, exponentially higher decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit, with substantial decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit, as well as a mean body temperature rise of 0. 5 percent in the first 4 days, as reported cases of severe bleeding in the tumor bed during surgery in the vCMS group a u00b0C group's group, u00b0 pCMS group'stem, and compression of the brainstem, and compression of the brains in the hematocrit, hema u00b0c in the u00b0C in the atocrit u00b0C u00b0C, ahu00b0, a's's, and aehu00b0Ca, with o's The authors found that a 0. 5°-u00b0C higher mean body temperature in the first four postoperative days raised the odds ratio for pCMS development almost fivefold. These findings suggest that an important target for preventing pCMS in children who have undergone medulloblastoma surgery may be rigorous monitoring of normothermia as standard care after surgery.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2017.2.peds16605


Differential patterns of metastatic dissemination across medulloblastoma subgroups

OBJECTIVE METROPHETIVE Metastatic replication is a significant therapeutic challenge and cause of death in patients with medulloblastoma. paraphrasedoutput:METHODS is a website that publishes articles about patients with metastatic medulloblastoma at The Hospital for Sick Children and the University Hospital Motol, who underwent up-front MRI of the craniospinal axis, was assembled and divided into subgroups using NanoString limited geneu2013expression profiling. Compared to a more irregular pattern in Group 4 metastases, laminar metastases were the most common during laminar disease. In patients with SHH medulloblastoma, laminar metastases were not present in patients with SHH medulloblastoma. Multiple lesions in the cerebellum were found in two of the 5 SHH patients', increasing the likelihood that these were synchronous primary tumors rather than true metastases. Metastatic deposits that did not improve on MRI after contrast therapy were found in patients whose primary tumor did not change.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2017.8.peds17264

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions