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The new inquiry addresses the determination of the local impingement density of fluid spray, which is a vital component in ultra-fast cooling of heated metal surfaces in steel industry, electronic chip cooling, automobile industry for fuel injection, aviation, and others. The flow characteristics of the air atomizing nozzle were investigated in a variety of parametric combinations and conditions. The working fluid used in this study was normal water-assisted with a range of air pressures from 2 to 4 bar. The effect of the controlling variables, such as nozzle height, air, and water pressure, on the mass impingement density was investigated.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-9057-0_53
The reinforced concrete corrosion investigation involves potential measurements on rebar reinforcing steel. However, the liquid-based RE performance reduction will occur as a result of the RE's mechanical phenomenon, i. e. The electrode solution's leakage of the electrode solution and range distance between rebar and the concrete coating were shown by a distance between the rebar and the concrete cover. The reinforcement concrete measurement is thus focused on the solid-state RE established for the potential distribution measurement on the reinforced concrete analysis. Similarly, potential corrosion investigation of the rebar concrete was carried out and verified with the commercial Ag/AgCl RE. Ag/AgCl commercial RE shows that the CCS solid-state reference electrode's stability and similar OCP behavior with Ag/AgCl commercial RE. The effect of distancing between rebar and reference electrode location was investigated, as well as actual potential data from the rebar was determined on the reinforcing rebar. The findings also show that solid-state RE is recommended for the rebar concrete corrosion analysis.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3629-6_34
The QPSK scatter spectrum communication signal, which can be used to perform signal enhancement capability testing, has been adopted by Hongyan satellites. However, the Hongyan QPSK's I and Q branches of the Hongyan QPSK signal use the same code sequence, but they are not compatible with traditional satellite navigation commands and are therefore unable to use the latest satellite navigation signal tracking method. This paper, therefore, recommends a tracking system based on QPSK spread spectrum communication signals. Based on the FFT and m sequence, the data symbol estimation method is developed.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3387-5_29
Traditional group delay measurement techniques include single carrier phase method and spectrum analysis based on signal autocorrelation function, but both techniques have their own limitations in GNSS receiver group delay measurement. The time delay of multi filters and downconverters stage connect channel directly cannot be determined by a single carrier phase system, and the measurement accuracy of a group delay of spectrum analysis methods based on signal autocorrelation functions will decrease significantly near the zero point in the signal power spectrum.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-8154-7_7
The essay explores the possibility of using thermal image processing to determine temperature, but with the help of a classic vision device and image processing and recognition, the object is introduced. The hybrid thermovision-vision camera was developed as part of the study, and the aim of the investigation was to look for specific measurement areas on the human face that are suitable for body temperature measurements. The selection of the measurement region was based on the analysis and recognition of visual images, while the temperature was determined on the basis of the study of the infrared photograph of the studied area.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-99112-8_8
Process Compensated Resonance Testing is an inexpensive quality assessment device that employs a broadband sinusoidal swept input to excite the component's resonant modes of operation as well as a structured learning framework to analyze the resonant modes of the component and as such determines the component's structural stability. Under a Monte Carlo simulation scheme, the resulting Integrated Interval Mahalanobis Classification System classifier uses BPSO to find those resonant frequencies that contribute favorably to the system and assesses measurement uncertainty.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-07258-1_25
Subjects were asked to specify the reachability distance they felt when confronting the confederate in both real and MR environments. The distance measured in the MR environment was consistent with that found in the real world, and the MR simulation procedure showed higher fidelity. The results of this research established the fidelity of the MR simulation technique in obtaining reachability distances and investigating human behavior, and concluded that MR simulation methods were a promising tool for conducting psychological experiments and monitoring human behavior.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-4786-5_13
Damage detection in the aerospace industry is of utmost importance. Advanced non-contact measurement methods can be used to obtain full-field responses of a target structure within the context of non-destructive testing, facilitating the development of structural health monitoring methods. This chapter is intended to compare various types of measurement techniques, excitation signals, and post-processing techniques applied to an Airbus airplane panel with sections of broken and loose rivets. For different frequency ranges, the panel is excited with modular shakers or PZT patches that use chirp or pseudorandom signals.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05415-0_14
A key capability for a test organization is the ability of measuring and reporting test data uncertainties. Error limit values based on a combination of random and systematic error sources are calculated in test data uncertainty analysis. Error source examination can also be used to determine if corrective actions are needed or appropriate to eliminate or minimize measurement errors.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05415-0_1
Multiple contributing error sources, including laser interferometer resolution, environmental conditions, mechanical errors, and reference flat uncertainty have been found, and the uncertainty assessment of flatness error measurement has been carried out by two approaches: law of propagation of uncertainty and Monte Carlo simulation.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2468-2_2
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