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Malaria - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 15 January 2023

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High-throughput analysis of the transcriptional patterns of sexual genes in malaria

Initially, we investigated the technical integrity of the systematic RT-qPCR platform to ensure it meets the established quality requirements for: RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by RT-qPCR. We then used this technique to track gene expression of a panel of GRGs undergoing treatment with gametocytogen regulators. Results We thoroughly elucidated GRG expression profiles under various conditions of a Pf blood cycle, whether we're looking for a Pf blood sample or the metabolic choline. The obtained results extend the current understanding of the initial changes in GRG's mRNA profiles after treatment with reported regulators. In addition, using this technique reveals that asexual parasite stage composition is a key parameter that must be considered when interpreting changes in GRG expression by RT-qPCR, particularly when testing for novel compounds that can control Pf sexual differentiation.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05624-w


Unravelling the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on childhood malaria in Malawi

Using Malaria Indicator Survey results, the effect of ITN access and use on malaria prevalence in Malawi children was investigated. During the same time period, household ITN coverage and use increased from 19. 0% of households with at least 1 ITN for every two people sleeping in the house the night before to 41. 4% with ITN usage from 41. 1% to 57. 4%. Both the geostatistical and non-stationary GLM regression reports indicated that child malaria prevalence was negative related to ITN population access and a positive correlation with ITN use, but that large uncertainties were largely ignored. Conclusion Malaria prevalence in children under the age of five in Malawi had a negative relationship with ITN population access and a positive correlation with ITN use, as shown by geographic heterogeneity in these relationships.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-023-04448-y


Durable wall lining for malaria control in Liberia: results of a cluster randomized trial

LLIN's effectiveness can be reduced by Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors. Aims Aim Objectives The aim of this survey was to determine the malaria control efficacy of DWL. In an area of pyrethroid resistance, the primary aim is to determine if DWL has an additional defensive function. Secondary objectives: To determine the degree of study duration, compare surface bioavailability of insecticides and entomological effectiveness on a long-term basis. Children aged 2 to 59 months were contaminated with P. falciparum infections. Primary outcome measures Primary outcome measures Prevalence of P. falciparum infections in children aged 2 to 59 months Results compared to 44. 1% in control clusters, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in active clusters after 12 months was 36 percent relative to 40. 1% in control clusters. In SAS, the Cochran-u2013Haenszel test for upland and coastal cluster pairs was calculated. Conclusions: The results show that DWL is a scalable and effective malaria control measure in persistent swarms of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitos, where LLIN use is impossible and where local housing plans include large gable and eve openings.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-022-04429-7


Entomological monitoring data driving decision-making for appropriate and sustainable malaria vector control in Côte d’Ivoire

Any vector control intervention deployment in Cu00f4te d'u2019Ivoire must be motivated by entomological evidence to ensure its success and appropriate budget allocations, according to the widely published insecticide resistance of malaria vectors in Cu00f4te d'u2019Ivoire. This report details the findings of monthly vector surveillance and insecticide susceptibility tests carried out in 2019 and a review of all recent entomological surveillance data used to guide vector control decision making in order to achieve this target. In all four bionomic sites, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was the most common malaria vector found. Compared to B'u00e9oumi, Dabakala, and Nassian, vector density in Sakassou increased throughout the year, with mean biting rates of 278. 2 bites per person per night compared to B'u00e9oumi, Dabakala, and Nassian. In Sakassou, 0. 44 infective bites per person per night, with 1. 44 ib/p/n in Dabakala and 1. 02 ib/p/n in Nassian, the mean entomological inoculation rate was 4. 44 infective bites per night per night.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-023-04439-z


Optimizing the role of ‘lead mothers’ in seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) campaigns: formative research in Kano State, northern Nigeria

During SMC campaigns, lead mothers are community health volunteers who support caregivers in complying with the monthly administration of anti-malarial drugs. During SMC campaigns, this research sought to better understand lead mothers, identify areas for expansion, and how to increase the presence of lead mothers. The findings of the formative phase converged around four overarching themes: lead mothers' skills and attributes; risk factors that influence lead mother's positions; how lead mothers' work with Community Health Influencers; and re-imagining lead mothers' roles during SMC campaigns were all converged around four overarching themes: competencies and attributes; and factors that influence lead mothers' roles. Lead mothers in Kano state can and do influence caregivers to adopt healthier habits during SMC campaigns, according to this formative research.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-023-04447-z


Therapeutics through glycobiology: an approach for targeted elimination of malaria

The emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium jeopardizes worldwide malaria control efforts, prompting the search of key metabolic pathways of parasite and human host for drug development has gained prominence. Since post-translational modifications of proteins involved in parasite-host interactions such as N-glycosylation of merozoite surface proteins and a few other erythrocyte clusters of differentiation antigens and complement receptors, among others, are vital to parasite migration, it is important to parasite elimination that must identify effective anti-malarial strategies.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11756-023-01312-x


Protein KIC5 is a novel regulator of artemisinin stress response in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

We're describing a P. falciparum mutant with altered sensitivity to ART that was developed via piggyBac transposon mutagenesis to help better understand parasite responses to ART. During intraerythrocytic asexual development, Phenotype analysis of the KIC5 mutant during intraerythrocytic asexual development found transcriptional shifts associated with DNA stress response and altered mitochondrial metabolism, thereby relating dysfunction of the KIC5 gene to the parasite's ability to respond to ART exposure.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-27417-6


Safety and therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Shecha health centre, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

Background In 2004, Ethiopian pharmacist Artemether-lumefantrine became the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria control. The aim of this review was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of AL in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infections. Methods of Care A 28-day onearm, prospective study of the clinical and parasitological response to AL was done at Shecha Health Centre, Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia, a 28-day onearm. Patients were treated with a six-dose regimen of AL for three days and followed for 28 days with clinical and laboratory results for patients. Results A total of 88 study participants were recruited and 69 of them completed the study with good clinical and parasitological responses, with good clinical and parasitological response. On day 2 and febrile infections, AL demonstrated a rapid parasite and fever clearance with no parasitaemia on day 2 and febrile infections on day 3. In Ethiopia, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria treatment continues with AL as the first-line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-022-04436-8


Implementation research of a cluster randomized trial evaluating the implementation and effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria using dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on reducing malaria burden in school-aged children in Tanzania: methodology, challenges, and mitigation

In the meantime, school-aged children have become increasingly vulnerable with asymptomatic malaria prevalence in the endemic areas, making them reservoirs for subsequent malaria transmission in the endemic populations. In the evaluation of the implementation of IPTsc using dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in three councils of Tanga Region, Tanzania, this review explores the operational reliability and effectiveness of the IPTsc on malaria parasitaemia and clinical malaria prevalence. To determine the success and acceptability of implementing IPTsc as part of a more comprehensive health care package for schoolchildren, mixed design strategies were used. Implementation of IPTsc was included in the study, which reimagined an existing school health service for Neglected Tropical Diseases control. Results IPTsc can be incorporated into existing school health and education services, paving the way for sustainable program implementation in a cost-effective manner.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-022-04428-8


Hospital-based surveillance of severe paediatric malaria in two malaria transmission ecological zones of Burkina Faso

Background In the present context of tailoring interventions to maximize impact, it is important that new findings from clinical epidemiology inform public health services and health workers in the diagnosis of severe disease. This report was designed to identify the prevalence of severe malaria at hospital level in two regions with a high malaria prevalence rate. respectively, the mean age was 33. 9 and 36. 8 months in lower malaria transmission and greater malaria transmission areas. P. falciparum density in the LMT area was much higher than that in the HMT area, with 22,861 trophozoites/u00b5L vs 11,291. 9 trophozoites/u00b5L versus 11,291. 9 trophozoites/u00b5L. Compared to those living in the LMT area, the adjusted odds of presenting with coma, respiratory distress, haemoglobinuria, cardiovascular collapse/shock, and hypoglycaemia were significantly higher among children living in the HMT area.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-022-04433-x

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions