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Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections account for over 600,000 deaths per year in Africa and young children, but a vast portion of the world's population remains vulnerable. We review the most recent findings in the immunogenicity and pathogenesis of malaria, with a particular emphasis on P. falciparum, the leading malaria killer. Difficulties in malaria diagnosis, drug resistance, and specific difficulties in treating P. vivax have all contributed to malaria elimination, but vaccines and other preventive steps may have improved disease prevention.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36419237
Methods We developed a high-throughput quantitative Reverse-Transcription PCR platform to robustly monitor Pf transcriptional levels, in particular, systematically profiling a large number of gametocyte-related genes. Initially, we evaluated the scientific results of the systematic RT-qPCR platform to see that it meets the established quality requirements for gene extraction, cDNA analysis, and gene expression by RT-qPCR. Implications: We thoroughly reviewed GRG expression profiles under investigation with the antimalarial drug dihydroartemisinin or the metabolic choline over the course of a Pf blood cycle. The obtained results add to the current understanding of the early alterations in mRNA profiles of GRG following treatment with approved regulators. In addition, using this method shows that asexual parasite stage composition is a key component to consider when interpreting shifts in GRG expression by RT-qPCR, especially when testing for novel compounds that might regulate Pf sexual differentiation.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36639683
Glass membrane feeders are used in malaria research for artificial blood feeding. Methods Hemotek feeders were compared to glass feeders in terms of mosquito feeding rate, imbibed blood meal content, and Plasmodium falciparum infection severity in mosquito guts. Conclusions Although mosquito feeding rate and blood meal volume were similar between Hemotek and glass feeders, a delay in transmission was observed using a Hemotek feeder with a conventional collagen membrane.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36637101
Using Malaria Indicator Survey results, we discovered the effects of ITN availability and use on malaria incidence in Malawi children. ITN coverage and use increased during the same time period, with household ITN usage increasing from 19. 0% of households with at least 1 ITN for every 2 people sleeping in the house the night before to 41. 4% and ITN use from 41. 9% to 57. 4%. Both the geostatistical and non-stationary GLM regression models showed that child malaria prevalence was declining regardless of ITN population access and a positive relationship with ITN use, but that was largely due to large uncertainties. Malaria prevalence in children under the age of five in Malawi had a negative correlation with ITN population access and a positive correlation with ITN use, as shown by geographic heterogeneity in these relationships across Malawi.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36635658
Any vector control intervention deployment in Cu00f4te d'Ivoire must be based on entomological evidence to ensure its efficiency and appropriate resource allocations, according to widely reported malaria vector resistance in Cu00f4te d'Ivoire. This report details the findings of monthly vector surveillance and insecticide susceptibility experiments carried out in 2019 and a review of all previous entomological surveillance data used to support vector control decision making to help with vector control decision making. In all four bionomic sites, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was the most common malaria vector found. Vector density in Sakassou was relatively high during the year, with mean biting rates of 289. 2 bites per person per night compared to Bu00e9oumi, Dabakala, and Nassian. In Beomi, 4. 44 infective bites per person per night, 1. 2 ib/p/n in Dabakala, 1. 17 ib/p/n and 1. 02 ib/p/n in Nassian, with a mean entomological inoculation rate of 4. 44 infective bites per night.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36635720
During SMC campaigns, lead mothers are community health volunteers who support caregivers in complying with the monthly administration of anti-malarial drugs. During SMC research, this research sought to better understand lead mothers' current role, determine areas for growth, and how to maximize the role of lead mothers. Lead mothers' roles are affected by four overarching themes: skills and attributes that influence lead mothers' careers; influence on lead mothers' careers; how lead mothers collaborate with Community Health Influencers; and re-imagining lead mothers' role during SMC elections converged around four overarching themes: skills and attributes that influence lead mothers' roles; and re-imagining the role of lead mothers. Lead mothers can and do encourage caregivers to adopt healthier habits during SMC campaigns, according to this formative Kano state's strong links to families and unique friendship with caregivers.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36635665
Malaria control in Liberia is dependent on universal coverage with pyrethroid-impregnated long-lasting insecticidal nets. Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors may also reduce LLIN's effectiveness, which could cause LLIN's efficiency to be reduced. AIM: To determine the malaria control effectiveness of DWL. In an area of pyrethroid resistance, DWL has an additional shielding function. PRIMARY MEASURE: The prevalence of P. falciparum disease in infants aged 2 to 59 months was determined by apprehension. DWL active components have surface bioavailability and entomological stability. Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in active clusters after 12 months was 36. 6% compared to 40. 1% in control clusters. In SAS using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method for upland and coastal cluster pairs, the risk ratio was calculated. DWL is a scalable and cost-effective malaria control measure in stagnant transmission areas with pyrethroid-resistant vectors, where LLIN use is unlikely and where local housing designs include large gable and eve openings.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36635660
Some people have frequent Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, while others are not affected by the disease the majority of the time. In regions where P. vivax is the most common species, malaria risk heterogeneity remains little investigated. Are repeatedly infected with vivax malaria infections such as the Amazon, which are just unfortunate? Here, we briefly examine evidence demonstrating that human genetic polymorphism and acquired immunity after repeated exposure to parasites may reduce the risk of P. vivax disease and disease in predictable ways.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36634044
Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional, descriptive survey of 27 health institutions in Tambacounda district from 20 February to 2022. Despite a 77% promptness, the standard ES system in the district was acceptable, according to its stakeholders, with prompt tool filling time in 96. 3% of the structures in our study. The services delivery points level's reports provided a representativeness of the ES system in 100% of health care facilities, according to the statistics collected. Even though only 56. 6 percent of SDP managers were educated, 71% of them were rated as simple by 71%. Conclusion: The common malaria ES scheme at the level of health care in Tambacounda district was safe, simple, adaptable, and responsive.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR595862
The World Health Organization has endorsed the pre-erythrocythrocym malaria vaccine for widespread use among children living in malaria-endemic zones following more than four decades of basic research and clinical trials. Taking into account the target stages within the parasite cycle, this review explores novel strategies for malaria vaccine design. During a blood meal of female anopheline mosquitoes, the multi-component vaccine has demonstrated a great deal, particularly because it uses transmission-blocking vaccines that block the parasite's replication into sporozoite stage parasites. Despite having a vaccine in a critical stage of growth, such as the RTS, S malaria vaccine, and the RTS, S malaria vaccine, the quest for a safe vaccine against malaria is far from complete. This paper discusses novel strategies for malaria vaccine design taking into account the parasite’s life cycle.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR595020
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