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Malaria - Crossref

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Last Updated: 15 August 2022

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Phylogenomics revealed migration routes and adaptive radiation timing of Holarctic malaria vectors of the Maculipennis group

Beklemishevi is now included in the North American Quadrimaculatus subgroup, adding to the confusion in mosquito genetics. Findings We performed a phylogenomic review of 11 Palearctic and 2 Nearctic mosquitoes based on 1271 orthologous genes based on their transcriptomic or genomic sequences in order to reconstruct historical links between the North American and Eurasian mosquitoes. Also, An. The time-calibrated tree shows a mosquito migration in the Maculipennis group from North America to Eurasia about 20-25 million years ago by the Bering Land Bridge. In Maculipennis evolution, the vectorial capacity and the ability to diapause during winter have both adapted multiple times. A comprehensive knowledge of the evolutionary history of the Maculipennis subgroup will help us better understand the current and future trends of malaria transmission in Eurasia.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.08.10.503503


Molecular identification of vivax malaria relapse cases in Yunnan Province based on the homologyical analysis of Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein gene

Abstract Background More than 85% of the malaria burden in Yunnan Province and Yunnan is also where the bulk of vivax malaria cases are identified around China. A total of 159 blood samples from primary infection Plasmodium vivax and recurrences were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing to obtain 156 CDS sequences of pvcsp gene, 121 of which can be matched to paired sequences of 59 cases. Every one of the 31 pairs of 59 pvc gene sequences had just one haplotype and no variant sites, meaning that no one of 31 pairs had any paired sequences was homologous, and the paired Plasmodium vivax strains were homologous single clone. Two haplotypes were identified in each of the remaining 28 sequences, but no length polymorphism was present, and except for two polymorphic loci, all single nucleotide polymorphisms were differentially transferred between paired sequences, indicating that the paired sequences are 'weakly heterologous' with no fragment insertions and only individual site polymorphisms. All 59 vivax malaria recurrences were attributed to the release of Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites from the same population as the primary infection. Conclusions The combined study of Plasmodium high variant genes led to the discovery of recurrent episodes caused by Plasmodium vivax homologous hypnozoites in Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites, as well as the characterization of the pvcsp gene as a useful molecular marker. Moreover, the research found that the majority of the hypnozoites causing vivax malaria recurrence in Yunnan Province were related to homologous single clone or sibling strains compared to the original infection strains.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1861513/v1


Lymphotoxin-α orchestrate hypoxic and immune factors to induces Experimental Cerebral Malaria-Inhibition mitigates pathogenesis, neurodegeneration and increases survival

Plasmodium berghei ANKA-induced ECM in C57BL/6 mice are essential characteristics of Plasmodium berghei induced ECM in C57BL/6 mice. T cell infiltration into the brains and subsequent neuronal cell death are the primary characteristics of Plasmodium berghei ANKA-induced ECM. Lethal treatment of nau00efve mice with serum from ECM mice and exogenous Lt-u03b1 was lethal. In comparison to only 15 days survival of PbA control mice, inhibition of Lt-u03b1 reduced neural cell death and increased mice's survival until 30 days post-infect.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1805020/v1


S -adenosyl-L-homocysteine Hydrolase: Its Inhibitory Activity Against Plasmodium falciparum and Development of Malaria Drugs

Parasite Plasmodium falciparum is continually posing a threat to human beings by evolving its antibodies to most of the antimalarial drugs and its results can be seen in the form of a large number of deaths each year, particularly in the poor and developing world. Blocking gene expression is one of the potential mechanisms to stymie protein synthesis. S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine accumulates intracellular, raising the ratio of SAH to S-adenosylmethione and inhibiting SAM-dependent methylation reaction, which is essential for parasite proliferation. In this way, SAH hydrolase inhibitors can be used to treat various disorders such as malaria, tumor, viral infection, etc. SAH hydrolase inhibitors have been developed and sold for a variety of antiviral drugs.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.2174/1389557521666201218155321


Screening the Medicines for Malaria Pandemic Response Box chemical library on Caenorhabditis elegans identifies re-profiled candidate anthelmintic drug leads

Farm animals and companion animals are also infected with Parametic nematodes. According, therefore, new chemical anthelmintic lead compounds are urgently needed. Screen libraries of drugs that are either already approved for human use or have already been included in clinical trials are one of the fastest paths to a novel therapeutic lead. 1. 0 x 10-4 M. Our 400 compound Medicines for Malaria Pandemic Response Box library was screened at first for L1-L4 growth / motility assay and assay in an L4 motility assay. Although not a parasite, the convenience with which high-throughput screens can be used on the free-living nematode C. elegans makes this a great way to find chemical leads and complement the often lower-throughput experiments on parasitic nematode models.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.08.10.503491


Distinct physiological, biochemical and morphometric adjustments in the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii as means to survive to dry season conditions in Burkina Faso

The two main steps evoked in literature are Aestivation and dispersive migration to show how malaria vectors, Anopheles coluzzii and An. Here, mosquito species were subjected to controlled environmental conditions mimicking south-western Burkina Faso's rainy and dry seasons. However, the classic metabolic rate shifts predicted as signatures of aestivation and migration were not illustrated here, revealing specific and unique physiological mechanisms that maintain malaria mosquito survival during the dry season. Expressions in epicuticular hydrocarbons composition and AKH levels were discovered between the permanent and temporary An. The high phenotypic plasticity of this mosquito species is shown by coluzzii populations, highlighting the species's high phenotypic plasticity. Our study, which culminates in the diverse and complex pattern of changes in the two mosquito species's and at the population level to deal with the dry season, also highlights potential future control tools.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.174433


Sequential roles for red blood cell binding proteins enable phased commitment to invasion for malaria parasites

Plasmodium merozoites' invasion of red blood cells is crucial to their continued survival within the species. Two main protein families, the Duffy binding-like proteins, and the reticulocyte binding like proteins have been extensively studied in P. falciparum, and are predicted to have overlapping, but not essential roles right before host cell entry. P. knowlesi, the zoonotic malaria parasite, has larger invasive merozoites and has a smaller, less specific, DBP, and RBL repertoire than P. falciparum.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.08.09.503398


Water source most suitable for rearing a sensitive malaria vector, Anopheles funestus in the laboratory

A very effective way to produce eggs from adult mosquitoes collected from the wild, but raising these eggs in a pleasing manner has always been a problem for adults. We optimized mosquito species larvae hatching in this study for optimum adult mosquitoe production that can be used for insecticide susceptibility testing. Methods: To collect eggs from gravid female Anopheles funestus collected from Benin's Kpome locality, a forced-egg laying method was used. In three different water samples and larvae were fed with TetraMin baby fish food, eggs were raised and larvae were raised. Results: The borehole water source was contaminated with lead and nitrate in comparison to normal water that had no contamination. No adult mosquito was found from larvae raised in borehole water, so no adult mosquito was hatched.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.12942.2

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions