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Malaria - Astrophysics Data System

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Last Updated: 15 January 2023

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Kidney Ultrastructural Pathology In Plasmodium Berghei Murine Malaria: Tubular Cell and Peritubular Capdllary Alterations

In acute or complicated P. falciparum malaria, renal function impairment can be present. According to some studies, acute renal failure in association with elevated mortality rates is associated with a 2-5% risk. Common causes of acute renal disease are not clearly understood, but in the majority of cases, massive hemoglobinuria seems unlikely, and various immunopathogenic pathways leading to tubulointerstitial nephritis have been recently proposed. In humans and some infections of rodents and monkeys, ultrastructured renal lesions in malaria has been established. In P. berghei malaria, tubular and capillary changes are described in this paper. In C57BL/6 male mice, berghei parasitized erythrocytes were inoculated intraperitoneally.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999MiMic...5S1168P/abstract


Molecular Pathogenesis of Cerebral Malaria

P. falciparum immediately starts to reconstruct the infected erythrocyte following the erythrocyte transplantation. Rapid changes in the antigenic and adhesive characteristics of P. falciparum-inkcted erythrocytes are traced by a large and heterogenous line of genes, and mutations in the expression of var genes are responsible for rapid changes in the PfEMPl variant surface proteins' antigenic and adhesive characteristics. PfEMPl expression switches can not only influence the phenotype of the parasite strain but may also change its sequestration to endothelial cells, as shown by PfEMPl.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997MiMic...3S..39F/abstract


Identification of malaria parasite among macaques in central and South Kalimantan Provinces, Indonesia

Human intervention in the forest domain has resulted in close proximity between humans and macaques, which may have an elevated risk of zoonotic diseases, including malaria. In macaques in Central and South Kalimantan Provinces, Indonesia, this current research seeks to identify malaria parasites among macaques. Identification of Malaria parasite species by using microscopy gold standard assessment and Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction using specific primer sets against Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium cynomolgi, and Plasmodium inui was carried out by using microscopy gold standard laboratory analysis and Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction, targeting Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium cyno Out of 224 whole blood samples tested, 49% were Plasmodium positive, with P. inui, P. cynomolgi, and P. knowlesi, all single or mixed infections. Moreover, finding several instances of Plasmodium positive macaques in Kalimantan also raises the risk of human transmission to humans due to contact between the two species. As a result, effective malaria surveillance and diagnostic capabilities should be greatly enhanced to support malaria elimination's efforts.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2023AIPC.2606c0004H/abstract


Mark-release-recapture experiment in Burkina Faso demonstrates reduced fitness and dispersal of genetically-modified sterile malaria mosquitoes

Novel genetic mosquito control methods may play a significant role in future integrated malaria surveillance efforts. In Burkina Faso, the Target Malaria group began releasing hemizygous genetically modified sterile and non-transgenic sibling males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii in July 2019. GM males had lower longevity and were less mobile than their wild type siblings, according to Bayesian results. These results reveal new insight into the fitness and behavior of newly released GM males, which may lead to the introduction of more nimble strains of the A. gambiae complex.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2022NatCo..13..796Y/abstract


Assessing the impact of insecticide-treated nets in the face of insecticide resistance on malaria control

These critical metrics include the maximum biting rate of mosquitoes, ITN coverage, debut ITN effectiveness against disease-insensitive mosquitoes, the likelihood that an infectious mosquito infects a vulnerable individual, and the rate at which adult mosquitoes become resistant to insecticides. When ITN coverage is averaged for a model with separate asymptomatic class, rather than 96%, in particular, if the initial efficacy of ITNs against sensitive and resistance mosquitoes is 96%. Even if the entire population uses ITNs, reducing R c below one is impossible for the model with a partially immune class and declining ITN effectiveness. The study indicates that replacing ITNs before their prescribed lifetimes or making ITNs with longer lifespans is critical for malaria prevention. In addition, the report shows that piperonyl butoxide ITNs outperform regular ITNs in malaria prevention.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2022JThBi.55511281N/abstract


Declines in prevalence alter the optimal level of sexual investment for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

Plasmodium falciparum, like most human pathogens, faces a significant selection pressure from public health services such as drug therapy. Here, we use modeling to see how control steps might reduce levels of within-host competition between P. falciparum genotypes and high rates of sexual investment.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2022PNAS..11922165E/abstract


Aggressive antipyretics in central nervous system malaria: Study protocol of a randomized-controlled trial assessing antipyretic efficacy and parasite clearance effects (Malaria FEVER study)

Background Malaria is a significant public health issue in Africa, where 250,000 children with malaria experience a neurologic injury with subsequent neurodisability each year. As such, robust antipyretic therapy may be appropriate in children with persistent malaria in children with a high risk of brain injury. However, no studies have looked at malaria fever management using dual therapies to date, particularly in children with uncomplicated malaria and using only a single antipyretic drug; however, no studies have looked at malaria fever management with dual therapies. Children hospitalized with central nervous system malaria will be randomly randomized to normal care versuss. prophylactic acetaminophen and ibuprofen every 6 hours for 72 hours in this clinical trial of effective antipyretic therapy. Participants are 2ndu201311 years without evidence of P. falciparum malaria infection by peripheral blood smear or rapid diagnostic test with CNS symptoms associated with malaria. With dual antipyretic therapies using acetaminophen and ibuprofen, eligible children will be randomly assigned either to a standard of care for fever control or to prophylactic, scheduled treatment every 6 hours for 72 hours. This clinical trial seeks to question the practice paradigm of limited fever therapy based on hyperpyrexia by examining the fever-reduction efficiency of a more active antipyretic using two antipyretics and prophylactic administration, as well as acute symptomatic seizures. A clinical trial investigating the neuroprotective effects of temperature decrease in CNS malaria is warranted if aggressive antipyretic therapy is shown to safely lower the maximum temperature.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2022PLoSO..1768414C/abstract


Structure-guided insights into potential function of novel genetic variants in the malaria vaccine candidate PfRh5

The large variety of Plasmodium falciparum antigens makes it a major obstacle in developing an effective vaccine. Although genetic diversity plays a significant role in immune evasion and poses a barrier to the development of both natural and vaccine-induced protective immunity, it has been under pressure in the evaluation of malaria vaccine candidates. PfRh5, a next-generation malaria vaccine candidate, uses genomic methods to determine genetic variations in this research. We used targeted deep amplicon sequencing to discover non-synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in PfRh5 in 189 P. falciparum positive samples from Southern Senegal, resulting in 74 novel SNPs. Novel SNPs may have functional implications on PfRh5 receptor binding, complicated assembly, or immune evasion, supporting continued attempts to identify PfRh5 as an effective malaria vaccine target and the development of a PfRh5 vaccine, according to the symical studies.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2022NatSR..1219403M/abstract


Inferring the epidemiological benefit of indoor vector control interventions against malaria from mosquito data

The decision to determine the effectiveness of new insecticide-treated nets and the indoor residual spraying of insecticide is based on epidemiological results, which are usually obtained in cluster-randomised control trials. Mosquito data obtained in experimental hut trials can be used to develop mechanistic models for Plasmodium falciparum malaria and help determine the epidemiological effectiveness of quick-acting, neuro-acting ITNs and IRS, according to Analyses.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2022NatCo..13.3862S/abstract


Zoonotic origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium malariae from African apes

The second ape-derived lineage is more closely related to the third, human-infective lineage P. malariae, but there is no evidence of cross-over, and it most likely refers to a distinct species. In addition, the presence and nature of genetic polymorphisms in P. malariae suggest that it resulted from the zoonotic transmission of an African ape parasite, which is similar to P. falciparum's origins. P. brasilianum, on the other hand, is embedded within human P. malariae's radiation, and so it reflects a new anthropology.

Source link: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2022NatCo..13.1868P/abstract

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions