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Liver Disease - U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

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Last Updated: 20 April 2022

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Immune Response of an Oral Enterococcus faecalis Phage Cocktail in a Mouse Model of Ethanol-Induced Liver Disease.

The impact of cytolytic E. faecalis phage treatment on intestinal and liver immune response was determined using a humanized mouse model of ethanol-induced liver disease. Following persistent-binge ethanol administration, oral administration of cytolytic E. faecalis phages contributes to the transfer of phages to the systemic circulation and appears to be safe. The majority of tested cytolysin-positive E. faecalis strains are tested in a clinical trial can be tested in a clinical trial.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030490


Liver specific, systemic and genetic contributors to alcohol-related liver disease progression.

500,000 patients are affected by alcohol-related liver disease each year each year, and the number is on the rise. The liver's interaction with other organs of the body, including bacterial infections, systemic and liver innate inflammation, including bacterial infections, is of concern, as well as the fate and number of hepatic stellate cells and the composition of the extracellular matrix in the liver, are all topics of concern. Mechanical factors and environmental changes, as well as the specially designed sinusoidal endothelium and the biliary tract, contribute to the proliferation of chronic liver disease by morphological and functional changes, contributing to hepatocytic import and export of nutritional and toxic substances. All of the above conditions influence the outcome of alcohol use disorder and the risk of emerging advanced disease stages such as cirrhosis, severe alcoholic hepatitis, and liver cancer.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1714-9330


Roles for the mycobiome in liver disease.

Changes in gut bacteria have been linked to pathogenesis and severity of liver disease, according to studies, but the contributions of the mycobiome to health and disease have not been well researched. To treat or prevent liver disease, strategies to manipulate the gut mycobiota can be developed.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.15160


β2-spectrin (SPTBN1) as a therapeutic target for diet-induced liver disease and preventing cancer development.

The incidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver cancer is on the rise. Here, we discovered that 2-spectrin, a sterol regulatory element that binds collagen, stimulated lipogenesis and liver cancer in mice fed a high-fat diet or a western diet. By CASPASE-3, HFD/WD produces SPTBN1 and SREBP1 cleavage, according to a CASPASE-3 study, and the cleavage products' interactions with promote gene expression of sterol response genes. Increased SPTBN1 and CASPASE-3 expressions were discovered in human NASH tissue.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abk2267


CRIg on liver macrophages clears pathobionts and protects against alcoholic liver disease.

The immunoglobulin superfamily's complement receptor, C3b or Gram-positive bacteria, is expressed on liver macrophages and directly binds complement component C3b or Gram-positive bacteria to mediate phagocytosis. We previously attributed cytolysin-positive Enterococcus faecalis to the occurrence of alcohol-related liver disease. CRIg is reduced in liver tissue from patients with alcohol-related liver disease patients, according to this study. CRIg-deficient mice developed more severe ethanol-induced liver disease than wild-type mice, causing more severe liver disease than wild-type mice; disease severity was reduced with the absence of toll-like receptor 2. CRIg-deficient mice were less effective than wild-type mice at eliminating Gram-positive bacteria like Enterococcus faecalis that had spread from gut to liver, and CRIg-deficient mice were less effective than wild-type mice at clearing Gram-positive bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis that had spread from gut to liver.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27385-3


The Integrated "Multiomics" Landscape at Peak Injury and Resolution From Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease.

Alcohol-associated liver disease is a common medical disorder in which the most common treatment is alcohol abstinence. The two research's objectives were, first, to identify the liver transcriptome, fecal microbiome, and portal serum metabolome at peak injury and late-term ALD resolution; and second, to integrate their interactions and determine better the pathogenesis of ALD. Female and male wild-type mice were fed the control or ethanol Lieber-Decarli diets for six weeks to prevent alcohol-induced liver disease. Vitamin D receptor/retinoid X receptor up-regulation, toll-like receptor, p38 and Stat3, and liver X receptor signaling were among the liver X receptor signaling down-regulation during ALD's resolution. In mice, the ALD inhibitor MAP3K1 inhibitor was inhibited. Conclusion: In a gender-specific manner, alcohol abstinence restores the liver transcriptome, fecal microbiome, and portal serum metabolome. Map3k1 was identified as a primary gene driving pathogenesis and resolution from ALD by the integration of multiomics results.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1793


Feedback Signaling between Cholangiopathies, Ductular Reaction, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Global health inequalities, particularly in the United States, are a result of cultural eating habits and lifestyle, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Pathological investigations into NAFLD have mostly concentrated on hepatocytes and other inflammatory cell types; however, the involvement of other biliary epithelial cells in the promotion of NAFLD has increased.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10082072


Impact of Aging on Liver Cells and Liver Disease: Focus on the Biliary and Vascular Compartments.

The aging process is represented by time-dependent decline in physiological functions of living beings. This cell's net effect in the course of disease is an issue of discussion. In fact, while the onset of a senescent phenotype may prevent tumor formation, these cells do appear to promote pathological processes in certain situations. Several research are now focusing on determining the precise molecular pathways of aging/senescence in various tissues, organs, or organs. Biliary and vascular components, which are present in the liver, have both been identified as important determinants of some form of liver disease. We summarize the most recent findings on aging/senescence, focusing on the biliary and vascular liver systems in this report. Many findings, both preclinical animal models and human liver specimens, point to the presence of specific aging markers in the diseases related to these hepatic compartments.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1725

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions