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Pediculosis is a significant social challenge that can be exacerbated by human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, and pelvis capitis. This report sought to assess the effects of a health education intervention program on reducing head lice in students of an elementary school's children. Following a two-month educational intervention course, the prevalence of pediculosis sequel-up remained monthly until the end of the school year. In addition, eight questions regarding diagnostic, epidemiology, care, and prevention were answered in a questionnaire administered to 50 volunteer parents before and after the training intervention program to assess their general knowledge and measure learning effectiveness. A decreased incidence of pediculosis in pupils dropped to 3% in children after a post-intervention program. A significant increase in parental knowledge was observed on the prevention programme of pediculosis based on statistical analysis of questions before and after the training in the questionnaire.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-022-03492-y
Multiple independent sources of fragmented mitochondrial genome evolution in parasitic lice provide insight into eukaryotic mitochondrial evolution. The mitochondrial genomes of bilaterian animals are extremely conserved organs that usually consist of a single circular chromosome. Nevertheless, several species of parasitic lice infective mitogenomes, where mitochondrial genes are present on separate, circular chromosomes. We found solid evidence that fragmented mitogenomes evolved many times within parasitic lice, and that the degree of fragmentation is highly variable, including examples of heteroplasmic arrangements. Mitochondrial fragmentation was also linked to declines to a lower AT%, perhaps due to differences in mutation biases.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-03625-0
The authors demonstrate that the main lineages of placental mammal lice had a common ancestor and that all parasitic lice had an avian ancestral host, using cophylogenetics and phylogenetic comparative methods. Here we investigated trends in mammalian lice diversification by reconstructing a higher-level phylogeny of these lice by using whole genome sequence reads to assemble single-copy orthologue genes across the genome. Three of the three major lineages of placental mammal lice had a single common ancestor, according to the evolutionary tree of lice. In addition, reconstructions of the ancestral host group for all parasitic lice in an avian ancestral host, indicating that the ancestor of Afrotheria obtained these parasites from an ancient avian host. The results of mammalian lice show that the key groups of parasitic lice are not uniformly distributed across mammals and reveal the origins of mammalian lice.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-022-01803-1
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