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The best way to prevent deaths and hospitalizations is to get annual vaccination against influenza. Due to high mutation rates in influenza viruses, regular updates of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines are required. It's vital to determine TIV effectiveness in different populations every year. In 2018–u20132020 among Brazilian volunteers, serological responses to TIV and circulating influenza strains were analyzed, using hemagglutination inhibition assays. Vaccine and seroprotection antibodies in all previous and existing vaccine and circulating strains were demonstrated by TIV. Age had a small effect on TIV responses, although previous vaccination had been attributed to reduced seroconversion and titers.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081692
The trivalent inactivated vaccine has been replaced by a quadrivalent inactivated vaccine. This report investigates the cost-effectiveness of switching from TIV to QIV in the Portuguese elderly mainland population, according to the National Health Service perspective. Methods: Based on Portuguese hospitalization results for the 2015/16 influenza season, a decision tree model was developed to compare TIV and QIV. The most important health economic result under consideration was the increase in cost-effectiveness ratio, which was the primary health economic outcome under discussion. The results: the high cost of QIV would rise to an increase of EUR 5,283,047, with the resulting ICER being EUR 26,403,007/QALY, above the normal willingness-to-pay threshold. Conclusions: Our findings, which came from the National Health Service's perspective, reveal that QIV is not cost-effective for the Portuguese elderly population due to the high cost. QIV will be cost-effective if the QIV prices were the same as the TIV.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081285
Though vaccination is the most common way to reduce the burden of seasonal influenza, influenza-infected vaccine virus strains in eggs can cause egg hatchery, leading to reduced antigenic similarity to circulating strains and therefore lower vaccine efficiency. Cell-based propagation techniques prevent these changes and are, therefore, more effective than egg-propagation vaccines. We evaluated three different scenarios: egg-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine for individuals under the age of 65 years and adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine for u226565 years; QIVe and high-dose QIV; and cell-based QIV and aTIV; and cell-based derived QIV and aTIV for people over the age group. In the majority of simulations, QIVe + aTIV was cost-savings relative to the baseline scenario, but QIVe + HD u2212 QIV was not cost-effective, reflecting the high acquisition cost of HD u2212 QIV.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081257
Avian influenza viruses are a rapidly evolving group of RNA viruses with segmented genomes. Although AIV is thought to have arisen from wild bird populations, the potential for rapid evolution and adaptation to mammalian hosts makes AIV both a potential agricultural and public health risk. Limited immune responses were generated by inactivated whole virus and subunit protein vaccines. The evolution of vaccine strategies has resulted from innovative use of genetic engineering to produce plasmid and viral gene delivery vectors. Endogenous, in vivo gene expression in cells is enabled by gene vaccines that contain plasmid DNA and viral vector delivery of AIV genes. To subunit vaccines, Viral proteins that promote neutralizing antibodies are preferred. Even in field conditions, replication-competent fowlpox virus vectors have been developed and have proven to be very effective. Future vaccines must also allow for the differentiation of vaccinated birds from naturally infected birds.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1079/pavsnnr20083088
For lowering influenza-associated morbidity and mortality, a universal influenza virus vaccine with the ability to elicit long-lived, broadly cross-reactive immune responses is a must. Here we're focusing on the manufacture of a universal influenza B virus vaccine based on the lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA platform. Both antigenic lineages have been tested for vaccine candidates based on a variety of target antigens that provide protection against challenges with ancestral and recent influenza B viruses.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32149-8
Although influenza vaccination reduces the risk of pneumonia, hospitalization, and mortality among seniors, older patients, influenza vaccination uptake is still low in older patients. In raising influenza vaccination uptake, the primary aim was to compare individualised counselling with educational pamphlets alone. The secondary objectives were to evaluate expertise and attitudes toward influenza vaccination as well as factors that influence uptake. Methods: In two government polyclinics with 160 participants per arm, a randomised controlled study was conducted. Results: 16 patients in the intervention group and 20 patients in the control group had completed influenza vaccination by three months, and 20 patients in the observation group had completed influenza vaccination by three months. Factors that were positively associated with vaccination were more able to receive vaccination immediately after intervention versus male gender, according to a positive correlation with vaccination uptake. Individualized counselling was more effective at expanding knowledge. Overall knowledge scores did not influence actual vaccination uptake rates. Conclusion: Both arms of patient education have boosted the uptake of influenza vaccination. Individualized counseling was not relevant to pamphlets alone in boosting uptake.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2021222
Summary of the Abstract Background Adult studies have shown within-season decreases in influenza vaccine effectiveness; studies in children are limited. Methods We conducted a prospective, test-negative review of children 6 months to 17 years hospitalized with acute respiratory disease at 7 pediatric medical centers from 2005 to 2020 influenza seasons. We estimated VE [100% u00d7 ] by comparing the odds of receiving a u22651 dose of influenza vaccine (u226514 days before illness development among influenza-positive children to influenza-negative children. Using multivariable logistic regression, changes in VE over time between vaccination date and disease onset date were estimated during the period between vaccination date and illness onset date. The findings of 8430 children and 4653 were given a u22651 dose of influenza vaccine. Influenza vaccine delivery was lower in case-patients than in control-patients; overall VE against hospitalization was 53%. Following the new Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for timing of vaccination delivery, the best option for preventing influenza-associated hospitalizations in children remains vaccination prevention.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac577
For broad immunity against influenza infection, a universal influenza vaccine is required. Here, we reported the efficacy of novel influenza vaccine candidates based on Ebola glycoprotein dendritic cell-targeting domain fusion protein technology. We demonstrated that E0394M-HM2e- or E0394M-pseudotyped viral particles could effectively attack DC/macrophage in vitro and produced significant titers of anti-HA and/or anti-M2e antibodies in mice. Our analysis shows that rVSV-Eu0394M-tM2e and rVSV-Eu0394M-HM2e are promising candidates for the development of a universal vaccine against various influenza strains together.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.937192
Abstract Background The European Medicines Agency requires enhanced safety surveillance for annual seasonal influenza vaccines with the intention of detecting any emerging safety risks before the vaccine's peak immunization period in any given year. Methods The method of enhanced passive safety monitoring of individuals vaccinated with IIV4 from October 9, 2020 to November 30, 2020 was carried out across seven Finland locations. No significant adverse events were reported at any time during any period, except for IIV4 in the 2019/20 surveillance survey. Conclusion No statistically significant changes in what is known or expected for IIV4 have been reported for the 2020/20 season, which supports the vaccination profile of this vaccine and helps keep public confidence in influenza vaccinations strong.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13898-z
Diabetes, hypertensive, and asthma in eastern province, KSA 2021, are among the study's objectives to investigate the perception of safety and ef001cacy of inuf002uenza vaccine among primary care chronic illness patents that are more specific: diabetic, hypertensive, and asthma. Only 66% of participants agreed that the inuf002uenza vaccine is safe, and 19. 1% believed there are absolute contraindications for the vaccine. According to 9. 5% of the seasonal inuf002uenza vaccine, there are serious side effects. In preventing inuf002uenza infection, two thirds agree that inuf002uenza vaccinations is safe in preventing inuf002uenza disease. Conclusion: The results of this report revealed that overall inuf002uenza vaccination coverage is acceptable. Perception of the vaccine is positive, among other things, but there is little information among Saudi patients with chronic diseases. Any healthcare professionals and public health workers can play a key role in this regard, and communications and knowledge of inuf002uenza and its vaccine in this group is a significant uf001rst measure.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.36106/ijsr/9722026
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