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Inflammatory Bowel Disease - MedlinePlus Genetics

Summarized by Plex Scholar
Last Updated: 08 August 2022

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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease of the digestive tract. The most common signs of ulcerative colitis are abdominal pain and cramping, as well as frequent diarrhea, with blood, pus, or mucus in the stool. In some affected individuals, chronic bleeding from the inflamed and ulcerated intestinal tissue can result in a red blood cell shortage. Toxic megacolon is a rare complication of ulcerative colitis that can be life threatening. Ulcerative colitis has also elevated the risk of colon cancer, particularly in people whose entire colon is inflammatory and in those who have suffered with ulcerative colitis for eight or more years. Ulcerative colitis is a common symptom of inflammatory bowel disease. Unlike ulcerative colitis, which affects only the inner surface of the large intestine, Crohn disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive tract, and inflammation extends into the intestinal tissue.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/ulcerative-colitis


Crohn disease

Crohn disease is a multi-complex, long-lived disease primarily affects the digestive system. Crohn disease most often appears in a person's late teens or twenties, but the condition can occur at any age. Some people with Crohn disease have blood in the stool from inflamed tissues in the intestine, and chronic bleeding can result in a small number of red blood cells. In some instances, Crohn disease can also cause inflammation of the joints, eyes, or skin. When ulcers break through the intestinal wall and passages form between loops of the intestine or nearby structures, ulcers can be present. Crohn disease is the most common cause of inflammatory bowel disease. Chronic inflammation of the intestinal lining is also present in another form of IBD, ulcerative colitis. Unlike Crohn disease, which can affect any part of the digestive system, ulcerative colitis typically causes inflammation in the colon.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/crohn-disease


Primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a disease that affects the bile ducts. Primary sclerosing cholangitis occurs due to inflammation in the bile ducts, which results in scarring and narrowing of the ducts. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is usually diagnosed around age 40, and for unknown reasons, it affects both males and women twice as often as women. Some people have no signs or symptoms of the disease when they are diagnosed, but routine blood tests reveal liver disease. Extreme exhaustiness, pain in the abdomen, and severe itchiness are among the early signs and symptoms of primary sclerosing cholangitis, as shown. Eventually, the accumulation of bile damages the liver cells, causing chronic liver disease and liver disease. Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin that helps absorb calcium and aids bones in skeletal hardening, and a deficiency of vitamin D may lead to bone thinning in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is often related to an inflammation of the intestines that causes open sores in the intestines and abdominal pain. Approximately 75% of people with primary sclerosing cholangitis have infectious bowel disease, the most common condition is ulcerative colitis. In addition, people with primary sclerosing cholangitis are more likely to have an autoimmune disorder such as type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, or thyroid disease than people without the condition. People with primary sclerosing cholangitis have an elevated risk of experiencing cancer, particularly cancer of the bile ducts.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis


Loeys-Dietz syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndrome can be present from childhood to adulthood, and the severity is dependent. The enlargement of the aorta, or the large blood vessel that distributes blood from the heart to the rest of the body, is characteristic of Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Stretching of the aorta may result in the layer tearing of the aorta wall. Loeys-Dietz syndrome sufferers may also have aneurysms or dissections in arteries throughout the body, as well as abnormal twists and turns in arteries. Individuals with Loeys-Dietz syndrome have skeletal difficulties, including premature fusion of the skull bones, an abnormal side-to-side deformities of the spine, an inward- and upward-turning foot, flat feet, or elongated limbs with joint deformities that restrict the movement of certain joints. Dural ectasia in people with Loeys-Dietz syndrome does not cause health problems, and it does not cause health problems. Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a common feature of the spinal cord dysfunction, and it can result in spinal cord injuries. People with Loeys-Dietz syndrome may bruise quickly and produce abnormal scars after wound healing. Some people with Loeys-Dietz syndrome have an abnormal accumulation of air in the chest cavity that can cause either the loss of a lung or a protrusion of organs due to muscle deficits.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/loeys-dietz-syndrome


Chronic granulomatous disease

Individuals with chronic granulomatous disease may have recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. People with this condition may also have areas of inflammation in certain tissues that can result in tissue damage. Chronic granulomatous disease is generally present in childhood, but some people do not experience symptoms until later in life. At least one significant bacterial or fungal infection outbreak every 3 to four years is common among people with chronic granulomatous disease. Individuals with chronic granulomatous disease may develop mulch pneumonitis, which causes fever and shortness of breath after exposure to decomposing organic material such as mulch, hay, or dead leaves. People with persistent granulomatous disease and the numerous fungi involved in their decomposition may have fungal infections in their lungs. The skin, liver, and lymph nodes are among the typical areas of infection in people with persistent granulomatous disease. In people with chronic granulomatous disease, inflammation can occur in a variety of regions of the body. In people with persistent granulomatous disease, the stomach, colon, and rectum are among the affected areas of inflammation, as well as the throat, and skin. People with chronic granulomatous disease are prone to autoimmune disorders, which arise when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. People with chronic granulomatous disease suffer from repeated infections and inflammation, according to their life expectancy; however, most affected people live into mid- to late adulthood with medical therapy.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/chronic-granulomatous-disease


Glycogen storage disease type I

Type I of glycogen storage disease type I is an inherited condition characterized by the synthesis of a complex sugar called glycogen in the body's cells. Around the age of 3 to 4 months, when babies start to sleep through the night and don't eat as often as infants, signs and symptoms of this disorder are common. Infants affected by the illness may have low blood sugar levels, which could lead to seizures. Children with GSDI have short arms and legs, and short stature as they get older. People affected by the skin may also have diarrhea and cholesterol deposits. Puberty may be delayed in those with GSDI. Females with this disorder may also have abnormally ovaries development. These two disorders are identified as glycogen storage disease type Ia and glycogen storage disease type Ib. However, these types are now known to be variants of GSDIb; for this reason, GSDIb is sometimes described as a type I non-a; however, these variants of GSDIb are now known to be variants of GSDIb; for this reason, GSDIb is sometimes referred to as variations of GSDIb; for this reason, GSDIb is also known as a variant of GSDIb. Many people with GSDIb have a white blood cell deficit, which can make them vulnerable to recurrent bacterial infections. Many of the affected individuals have diarrhea of the intestinal walls. People with GSDIb may have dental problems, inflammation of the gums, chronic gum disease, abnormal tooth formation, and open sores in the mouth. People with GSDIb are particularly vulnerable to neutropenia and oral difficulties, but they are not seen in people with GSDIA.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/glycogen-storage-disease-type-i


Cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinoma is a group of cancers that originate in the bile ducts. Bile ducts are branched tubes that connect the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder until being released in the small intestine after a person eats. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma develops in the liver's small bile ducts. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma begins in a region called the hilum, where the right and left major bile ducts join and leave the liver. Cholangiocarcinoma does not usually cause any signs in their early stages, and the disease is rarely recognized until it has spread beyond the bile ducts to other organs. When bile ducts are blocked by the tumor, symptoms often occur. The majority of people with cholangiocarcinoma are older than 65.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/cholangiocarcinoma

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions