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Last Updated: 13 September 2022

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Sodium content of menu items in New York City chain restaurants following enforcement of the sodium warning icon rule, 2015-2017

In 2016, New York City began enforcing a sodium warning label at chain restaurants, requiring the display of an emblem next to every menu item that contains more than 300 mg sodium. Following the introduction of the sodium warning symbol, we investigated whether menu labeling could improve menu nutritional composition. In 2015 and 2017, all menu items at ten quick-service and three full-service chain restaurants were photographed, matched to nutritional information from restaurant websites, and some were categorized as being available at both baseline and follow-up, or at only one time point. At baseline, mean per-serving sodium content was 2,160 mg at FSR and 1,070 mg at QSR, and 40. 6% of FSR items and 7. 2% of QSR items contained u22652,300 mg sodium per serving. Both study show high sodium content in menu items at popular chain restaurants and highlight the challenges in compeling restaurants to reduce sodium levels.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR539850


Changes in consumer purchasing patterns at New York City chain restaurants following adoption of the sodium warning icon rule, 2015-2017

Following policy implementation, we investigated whether high-sodium purchases from NYC chains changed as a result of menu labeling. As shifts in consumer purchases have increased, we speculated. In FSR or QSR, difference-in-difference regression models, adjusted for demographic and location covariates, examined whether the percentage of NYC residents purchasing a high-sodium item or whether mean sodium content of purchases changed, or even changed. The number of Manhattan residents purchasing 1 or more high-sodium items did not significantly differ from baseline to follow-up at FSR or QSR did not significantly differ from baseline to follow-up at FSR or QSR. Mean sodium dropped sharply among NYC FSR respondents relative to Yonkers; no changes in mean sodium were found among QSR participants. While the decrease in mean sodium purchased by NYC FSR patrons after the sodium warning program is encouraging, there was no such decrease in the number of respondents purchasing high-sodium items.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR535983


Gamma knife icon based hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (GKI-HSRS) for brain metastases: impact of dose and volume.

Objective Gamma Knife is a new medical approach in the treatment of brain metastases that allows for both the dosimetric advantages of the GKI stereotactic radiosurgery platform as well as the biological benefits of fractionation. Following a 5 fraction GKI-HSRS for intact brain metastases, we now have mature local control and adverse radiation effect outcomes. Patients with intact brain metastases treated with 5-fraction GKI-HSRS were retrospectively reviewed by a doctor. According to 55. 2 percent and 52%, respectively, the mean total dose and prescription isodose was 27. 5 Gy in 5 daily fractions and 52%. MVA discovered a total dose of 27. 5 Gy vs. u2264 25 Gy, as well as prior chemotherapy exposure as significant predictors of LC. The 1-year ARE rate was 10. 8% and the symptomatic ARE rate was 1. 8%. Conclusion Moderate total doses of GKI-HSRS in 5 daily fractions were correlated with elevated LC indices and a low incidence of symptomatic ARE.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35999435


Conventionally fully fractionated Gamma Knife Icon re-irradiation of primary recurrent intracranial tumors: the first report indicating feasibility and safety.

Objective With the introduction of real-time image guidance on the Gamma Knife system allowing for mask-based immobilization, a virtually fractionated GKI radiation system can now be delivered to customers with an inherently small window for delivery uncertainty, rapid dose dropoff, and inhomogeneous dose dispersal. Patients were re-irradiated with a median total dose of 50. 4 Gy administered in a median of 28 fractions with GKI. The median mean EQD2 administered to the tumor was 121. 1 Gy, with the median maximum point EQD2 administered to the brainstem, optical nerves, and optic chiasm set at 91. 6 Gy, 59. 9 Gy, respectively, according to the median cumulative mean EQD2 administered to the tumor was 61. 1 Gy, 58. 9 Gy, and 59. 9 Gy. Conclusions Fractionated radiotherapy using GKI may be a safe and effective method for the re-irradiation of complex primary intracranial tumors, where the goal is to reduce the risk of severe late effects.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35986735

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions