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Human Brain - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 11 January 2023

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How does the human brain process noisy speech in real life? Insights from the second-person neuroscience perspective

However, as a result of the poor ecological stability of the speech stimuli and the experimental paradigm, as well as the lack of focus on the high-order linguistic and extralinguistic processes, it is still unclear how the brain processes noisy speech in real-life scenarios. It monitors both of the speaker's and the listener's neural functions, as well as estimates of the speaker-listener neural coupling in the case of the speaker's production-related neural activity as a common measure. We briefly review the recent findings into how the brain processes speech in noise; then, we introduce the concepts and benefits of the second-person neuroscience approach; then, we discuss the benefits and limitations of speech-in-noise comprehension, extending the existing understanding of how people communicate in noise; finally, we conclude by identifying some key issues and calls for further study into the second-person approach, which may expand the existing body of noise.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11571-022-09924-w


De novo genes with an lncRNA origin encode unique human brain developmental functionality

Human de novo genes can arise from null long non-coding RNA loci and are evolutionarily important in general, but the reason and why this all-or-nothing shift to functionality is uncertain. We found distinctive U1 elements and RNA splice-related sequences for RNA nuclear export, distinguishing mRNAs from lncRNAs, and determining the origins of de novo genes from lncRNA loci. We established the rules of splicing and U1 recognition of one of these genes, the ENSG00000205704, in human neural progenitor cells as a proof of concept. We now illustrate the main roles of nuclear export in de novo gene origins. The authors investigate biological mechanisms that promote nuclear export of these young genes by examining experimental evidence for one such gene in brain development.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-022-01925-6


Cyclic Multiplex Fluorescent Immunohistochemistry Protocol to Phenotype Glial Cells in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Brain Sections

We describe a procedure of cyclic multiplex fluorescent immunohistochemistry that allows the identification of up to 16 antigens on the same formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded section using u201coff-the-shelf, primary antibodies, as well as fluorescently conjugated secondary antibodies. The antibodies' denaturing/stripping of the antibodies by microwaving and the quenching of any remaining fluorescent signal between the cycles of otherwise normal multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry's cycles are among the key steps.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2811-9_19


Somatic CNV Detection by Single-Cell Whole-Genome Sequencing in Postmortem Human Brain

We offer laboratory and bioinformatic methods used in our lab to find megabase-scale CNVs in single cells from multiple system atrophy human postmortem brains, as well as immunolabeling prior to determining nuclei for whole-genome amplification. We also have unpublished comparison of scWGS generated from the same control substantia n. . . . sample's results, using the latest iterations of common WGA chemistries, MDA, and PicoPLEX. We've used this technique to focus on brain cell types that are most relevant to synucleinopathies, but it can also be used to any tissue or cell type with appropriate markers.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2655-9_11


Microglia-containing human brain organoids for the study of brain development and pathology

Microglia dysfunction has been attributed to increasing evidence in the pathogenesis of various brain disorders, ranging from psychiatric disorders to neurodegenerative diseases. In-vitro three-dimensional cell cultures that recapitulate key characteristics of the human brain have opened a new avenue for modeling brain growth and pathology. This report summarized the most recent techniques used to generate MC-HBOs for disease modeling and pathology, as well as providing recommendations on the use of MC-HBOs for disease modeling and functional studies.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01892-1


Three-Dimensional Human Brain Organoids to Model HIV-1 Neuropathogenesis

The lack of physiologically correct models to represent the dynamic human brain and the associated pathologies has long stymied research into neurological disorders. Three-dimensional brain organoids have emerged as a cutting-edge technology that has provided an alternative to vitro technology in vitro to study healthy neural growth and function as well as pathogenesis of neurological disorders and neuropathologies caused by pathogens. We have integrated HIV-target microglia into brain organoids in an elaborate multicellular network that mimics the HIV-1-infected brain tissue, which allows us to investigate this and advance the brain organoid technology.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2895-9_14


Three-dimensional visualization of human brain tumors using the CUBIC technique

Human brain tumor treatment using tissue clearing methods is also limited. This research was conducted to investigate the use of CUBIC on 3D pathological studies of human brain tumors. We found that mean vascular diameter was positively correlated with tumor malignancy among brain tumors of different malignancy by comparing quantitative morphological parameters of microvessels in brain tumors of various malignancy. Our research shows that CUBIC can be applied to 3D pathological studies of several human brain tumors, as well as 3D studies of human brain tumors, and that 3D studies of human brain tumors provide a significant way to help us better understand brain tumor pathology in the future.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10014-022-00445-2


Extraction and Purification of Single Nuclei from Frozen Human Brain Tissue

Both healthy and diseased brains require addressing the inherent complexity of the human brain at the level of single cells, which is crucial to understanding the vast range of cell types and functional states. Since myriad cell types/sub-types constituting individual brain cells are embedded within the neuropil's intricate network of interconnected cells, processes, and synapses, single brain cells are unable to distinguish single brain cells correctly and selectively isolated, single brain cells are often used as substitutes for individual brain cells.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2655-9_2


Inside the Heart of Neuromarketing: A Comparison of Selected Studies and Look into the Effects of Product Role on the Human Brain

Neuromarketing can help companies increase profits and sales while still being able to better target clients with the products and services that are appropriate for them. The present paper gives an overview of neuromarketing, from the recognition of the internal processes that influence decision-making to the introduction of neuroscience-based marketing studies, providing concrete insight into the customer's brain.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-39072-3_10


Advancing preclinical models of psychiatric disorders with human brain organoid cultures

Psychological disorders are often distinguished from neurological disorders in the fact that the former do not have characteristic lesions or findings from cerebrospinal fluid, electroencephalograms, or brain imaging, and, furthermore, there are no commonly recognized convergent mechanisms. Psychiatric disorders commonly involve clinical diagnosis of phenotypic behavioral changes of mood and psychosis, most often with little understanding of environmental causes. As such, psychiatric disease has been challenging to model preclinically for mechanistic recognition and pharmaceutical innovation. This paper compares commonly used animal models of preclinical testing with new methods of induced pluripotent cell culture, with a focus on emerging three-dimensional models.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01708-2

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions