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Human Brain - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 11 September 2022

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Herpesvirus Infections in the Human Brain: A Neural Cell Model of the Complement System Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Nevertheless, the brain complement system's dynamics are still unclear. Many complement proteins have limited access to the brain from plasma, necessitating manufacture and specific control of expression in the brain; therefore, complement protein synthesis, activation, surveillance, and signaling should be investigated in human brain-relevant cellular models. Cells isolated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells could be used to build tractable models. Methods : Human-induced pluripotent stem cells were divided into neuronal and microglial cells that were cultured with primary culture human astrocyte-like cells. Hi-N cells produce complement factor 4 and factor B, while hi-M cells produce complement factor 2 and complement factor 3. However, both forms of functional C3 convertase are created when hi-N and hi-M cells are mixed in co-cultures, as shown by elevated amounts of the cleaved C3 protein, C3a.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2022_383


Genome-wide association study of the human brain functional connectome reveals strong vascular component underlying global network efficiency

Complex brain networks play a central role in integrating activity throughout the human brain, and such networks can be identified in the absence of any external stimulation. In up to 36,150 participants of European ancestry in the UK Biobank, we conducted ten genome-wide association studies of resting state network measures of intrinsic brain function. RSFA itself had a significant genetic component, and we discovered 24 genomic loci associated with RSFA, 157 genes whose prediction function was linked to it, and 3 proteins in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and 4 in plasma, but not in plasma.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-19106-7


In vivo correlation of serotonin transporter and 1B receptor availability in the human brain: a PET study

Active transport into the bouton by the serotonin transporter and authoreceptors, such as the inhibitory serotonin 1B receptor, which, when activated, reduces serotonin release. Here we will look at the connection between 5-HT_1B receptors and serotonin transporters in the living human brain for the first time in vivo. The 5-HT receptor and the 5-HT transporter were investigated twice with PET, respectively, testing the 5-HT receptor and the 5-HT transporter. Although the correlation results in cortex should be treated with caution due to poor signal to noise ratios [11C]MADAM binding in those regions, it suggests a connection between two key proteins involved in the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that further research is required to investigate the clinical relevance of 5-HT_1B receptors in therapy with drugs that block serotonin reuptake.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-022-01369-3


Ventricular opening and cerebrospinal fluid circulation accelerate the biodegradation process of carmustine wafers suggesting their immunomodulation potential in the human brain

Purpose Opening the ventricular system during glioblastoma surgery is often necessary, but the resulting effect on the tumor microenvironment of glioblastoma remains uncertain. The wafer's biodegradation process is unclear, and the available data is limited to in vivo non-human mammalian studies. We hypothesized that the ventricular opening of the wafer and the glioblastoma tumor microenvironment can be affected by the degradation process. Methods This research consisted of 30 glioblastoma patients. The carmustine wafer implanted group had significantly less TMEM119-positive microglia inside the tumor compared to previous studies. The decrease in TMEM119-positive microglia was correlated to longer intervals between surgeries and open ventricular systems, according to simple and multiple regression analyses. In addition, our findings point to the pathophysiological implications of the ventricular opening within the surrounding human brain, particularly after the wafer implantation.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-022-04078-5


Human brain tumor classification and segmentation using CNN

In recent years, tumor profiling in brain segmentation with classification by neuroimaging techniques has become highly valued. Because there are several tumors, an incorrect tumor diagnosis could lead to significant complications. Deep Learning may be a form of an artificial intelligence that has recently achieved excellent success in classification and segmentation tasks. Using two public databases, this research uses a convolution neural network that assigns a score to brain tumors, demonstrating the different tumor types as with three different glioma grades. Images on T1-weighted images include 233 and 73 patients with 516 and 3064 images. Study II is 86% using the Sgdam optimizer, according to the experimental findings. This predicted method gave a tumor classification accuracy in study I, which is 86. 23 percent using Adam optimizer, and in study II, 81. 6% using Sgdam optimizer. The new algorithm has provided some of the best results in the classification and segmentation of MRI brain images.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-022-13713-2


Subcortical-cortical dynamical states of the human brain and their breakdown in stroke

The brain seamlessly switches between transient connectivity patterns, with cortical regions flexibly coordinating with two groups of subtical regions, indicating that this dynamic is abnormal in stroke patients. The mechanisms that control dynamical rhythms in spontaneous brain activity are not clear. We find that shifts in cortical clusters coincided with shifts in subcortical clusters, with cortical regions flexibly synchronizing with either limbic regions or subtical nuclei. Dynamical anomalies observed two weeks after stroke recover in time and contribute to explaining neurological dysfunction and long-term effects.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32304-1


Development of quantitative and continuous measure for severity degree of Alzheimer’s disease evaluated from MRI images of 761 human brains

The cortical thickness profile at cortex points of subjects was created by statistically collecting the cortical thickness measurements of 761 human brains. A new and simple algebraic predictor has been developed by We also produced a new and improved algebraic predictor that gives the quantitative and continuous degree of AD severity of subjects across the scale from 0 to 1 for completely AD state. Based on a covariance correlation matrix of cortical thickness profiles between human subjects, a mathematical model of a new predictor of AD severity is provided. Conclusions We are exploring the nature of broad distribution of AD in people within a given cohort, from 0 for entirely CN to 1 for fully AD states. The quantitative and continuous measurement of AD severity in this research could be a useful diagnostic tool for determining the various stages of AD severity.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-022-04903-8


A framework for in-vivo human brain tumor detection using image augmentation and hybrid features

Brain tumor formation is triggered by the uncontrolled and accelerated multiplication of cells in the brain. Brain tumor diagnosis is extremely difficult due to the changes in tumor location, shape, and size. In this work, an Extreme Gradient Booster is used to classify four subtypes of brain tumors, including gliomas, meningiomas, and pituitary tumors. The improved results reveal the effectiveness of feature fusion and establishment of XGBoost as an effective classifier for brain tumor detection in terms of testing reliability, sensitivity, and Area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13755-022-00193-9


Population-based tract-to-region connectome of the human brain and its hierarchical topology

The brain maps region-to-region links, but often ignores the importance of connecting pathways. Connectome maps region-to-region connectivities, but does not specify which white matter pathways are used to create the connections. The constructed connectome quantifies the population risk of a white matter tract innervating a cortical area. The clustering results on white matter bundles revealed the categorization of fiber bundles in the association pathways. This tract-to-region connectome provides insight into the connective topology of cortical areas and white matter bundles. The derived hierarchical link provides a categorization of gray and white matter structures.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32595-4


Phase-based fast 3D high-resolution quantitative T_2 MRI in 7 T human brain imaging

Transverse relaxation time-weighted imaging is one of the most common baseline comparisons in MRI diagnostics, but it lacks quantitative data. Although ultra-high-field MRI provides the ability to gain new insights by raising the spatial resolution, fast quantitative T_2 mapping cannot be achieved without overcoming the challenge of increased power deposition and radio frequency field inhomogeneity at ultra-high-fields. Taking on two key ultra-high field challenges, we expand this new approach to ultra-high field MRI by establishing quantitative high-resolution 3D T_2 mapping at 7 T, addressing RF field inhomogeneity and using low flip angle pulses, as well as addressing two key field obstacles. Both T_2 and RF field maps are extracted from the signal's phase by this method simultaneously. Our approach helps produce 3D whole brain images with sub-millimeter resolution without needing additional equipment such as a multi-channel transmit coil, boosting the usability of the ultra-high field MRI in clinical practice.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-17607-z

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions