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Human Brain - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 11 January 2023

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Effects of inhaling essential oils of Citrus limonum L., Santalum album, and Cinnamomum camphora on human brain activity.

Introduction Essential oil inhalation has various effects on the human body. Using multichannel electroencephalography and brain source activity estimation, we set out to investigate the effects of inhaling lemon, sandalwood, and kusunoki essential oils on human brain function and memory function. Inhalation of lemon essential oil has dramatically improved task. The essential oil inhalation of Lemon essential oil increased delta and theta band activation in the prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and insula. Conclusions Our results show that different essential oils have specific effects on brain function related to emotion and memory processing.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36624922


Biotransformation of efavirenz and proteomic analysis of P450s and UGTs in mouse, macaque, and human brain-derived in vitro systems.

In this research, cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-dependent metabolism of EFV was investigated in mouse, cynomolomolo, and humans, as well as primary neural cells from C57BL/6N mice. However, EFV's direct glucuronidation of EFV was only detected in cynomolgus macaque brain microsomes. Microglia were the only cell type to show metabolism in primary neural cells treated with EFV, producing 8-OHEFV only. Glucuronidation was found only in cortical neurons and astrocytes in cells treated with EFV-dependent metabolites, indicating that certain aspects of EFV metabolism are cell-type specific. Eleven P450s and 11 UGTs were found in human brain microsomes, while ten P450s and 15 UGTs were found in mouse brain microsomes, and 17 and 18 P450s and UGTs, respectively, were discovered in macaque brain microsomes. This research finds that brain metabolism could play a role in the pharmacological and toxicological outcomes of EFV in the brain.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36623884


Therapeutic Role of microRNAs of Small Extracellular Vesicles from Human Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Treatment of Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

The critical role of micro ribonucleic acids in generating MSC-derived sEVs' beneficial results for TBI treatment is still unclear. With Argonaute 2's knockdown in neurological repair, neuroinflammation, and neurovascular remodeling in TBI rats, the present research was intended to investigate the role of microRNAs in sEVs from MSCs. Adult male rats exposed to a moderate TBI caused by controlled cortical impact were found in adult male rats exposed to a moderate TBI induced by controlled cortical pressure. Therapeutic effects of sEVs derived from na's nave MSCs, MSCs transfected with scramble control short hairpin RNA, and MSCs transfected with a lentiviral vector-based shRNA against Ago2 were determined in adult male rats s The Morris water maze test was used for spatial cognition and memory 31-35 days PI. However, Ago2-KD-SEV therapy had a significantly less therapeutic effect on all the variables tested above than did nau00efve-sEV and vector-sEV treatments. Ago2-KD-sEV's therapeutic effects were comparable to those of vehicle therapy.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36394949


White-matter degradation and dynamical compensation support age-related functional alterations in human brain.

Functional connectivity links captured by metaconnectivity are identified by age-related evolution of dynamic functional connectivity and spatial covariation characteristics of functional connectivity links captured by metaconnectivity. From functional MRI, we find age-related evolutions of dynamic functional connectivity and spatial covariation characteristics of functional connectivity links captured by metaconnectivity. We also show that with these two conditions, we can depose the time-delays as bimodal distribution that only distinguishes between intra- and inter-hemispheric delays, and that the same working point also captures the static FC the best, resulting in the most variability at slow time scales.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36611231


The neuron mixer and its impact on human brain dynamics

We know that a neural cell is also a signal mixer in this case. In addition, we show that the neural mixing process is present in human brain function and is associated with our cognitive functions. In virtually every academic domain and species, neural network oscillations have been observed. One-Sentence Summary The neuron is a signal mixer similar to an electronic transistor capable of modulating oscillatory human brain dynamics, according to a one-sentence summary.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR593414


Critically synchronized brain waves form an effective, robust and flexible basis for human memory and learning

This lack of a solid theoretical framework has implications not only for our understanding of brain function and brain network derived from the Hodgkin-Huxley ad-hoc circuit analogies that have created a slew of Artificial, Recurrent, Convolution, Spiking, etc. , Neural Networks that have in turn led to the development of artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms that have been based on the Hodgkin-Huxley ad-hoc circuit analogy In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of our WETCOW framework in terms of AI/ML and Neural Networks, and then extend it to the specific use of AI/ML and Neural Networks.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR592511


Human Brain Endothelial Cell Seeded on Inner Surface of Alginate Hollow Microfibers

The blood-brain barrier is provided by tight junctions that have been embedded within a monolayer of the human brain endothelial cells inside, providing the necessary blood-brain barrier functionality. To achieve such barrier functionality in vitro, replicating the hollow tubular structure of the BBB and the HBECs monolayer on its inner surface is essential. We found the HBEC monolayer on the inner surface of alginate-based hollow microfibers on the inner surface of alginate-based hollow microfibers here. In the maintenance media, the seeded HBECs were monitored for nine days after production and cultured to form a monolayer on the inside of the alginate hollow microfibers' inner surface. The microfluidic technique used in this study may have been extended to produce a monolayer of different cell types on the inner surface of alginate hollow microfibers with cell-compatible ECM matrix proteins.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR592312


Depletion of circ_0006459 protects human brain microvascular endothelial cells from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced damage through the miR-940/FOXJ2 pathway.

Methods The human brain microvascular endothelial cells were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation to simulate an in vitro ischemic stroke model. Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counting kit-8 and 5-Ethynyl-29-deoxyuridine assays, according to cell counting kit-8 and 5-Ethynyl-29-deoxyuridine assays. Following OGD, results Circ_0006459 and FOXJ2 expression was significantly upregulated, while miR-940 expression was downregulated in HBMECs. HBMECs are among the few cell lines that have been conditioned by OGD-induced cell proliferation and proliferation of cell apoptosis and inflammation. In addition, miR-940 silencing or FOXJ2 overexpression in OGD-induced cell proliferation and inflammation in OGD-induced HBMECs. Further, circa_0006459 depletion decreased FOXJ2 protein expression by interacting with miR-940. Conclusions: circ_0006459 shielded human brain microvascular endothelial cells from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury via the miR-940/FOXJ2 pathway, providing a promising therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36608833


Analogous cognitive strategies for tactile learning in the rodent and human brain.

The evidence for similar sensory-cognitive mechanisms among species is sparse, owing to such species-specific differences in sensory dominance, cognitive relevance, and capacities. Following canonical pathways from the thalamus and the primary somatosensory cortex up to the frontal cortex, we explore how the brain, in various species, uses such processing rules to determine decision-making during tactile learning. In addition, we discuss the importance and challenges for future cross-species research in addressing mutual context-dependent evaluation methods underpinning perceptual learning.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36608783


Human brain solute transport quantified by glymphatic MRI-informed biophysics during sleep and sleep deprivation

Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms for solute transport in the human brain have been difficult to quantify using imaging methods alone. We analyze and quantify CSF tracer transport parameters in sleep and sleepdeprived patients using multi-modal human brain MRI data sets in sleeping and sleep-deprived patients using forward and inverse subject-specific computational modelling. Instead, we find that human MRI results correlate well with transportation by either significantly raised extracellular diffusion in combination with local clearance rates corresponding to a tracer half-life of up to 5 hours, or by extracellular diffusion increased by advection with brain-wide average flow rates of 1 bc m/min. The role of sleep and sleep deprivation on human brain clearance is fully explained by reduced tracer clearance after sleep deprivation. Increased tracer clearance after sleep deprivation is explained in detail, elucidation of human brain clearance.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR591318

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions