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Human Brain - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 11 September 2022

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor rs6265 (Val66Met) single nucleotide polymorphism as a master modifier of human pathophysiology.

The most common of the nerve growth factor family is a brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is also known as a sophisticated environmental sensor and master coordinator of whole organismic physiology, according to Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. To that extent, we recently discovered that a common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene not only improves basal cardiac transcription, but also positively affects heart gene expression and function in males and females.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35799516


Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote repair of neonatal brain injury caused by hypoxia/ischemia in rats.

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplantation is thought to be an effective treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. We investigated the possibility of hUC-MSCs therapy of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury related to maternal immune activation and the underlying mechanism in this research. On day 16 or 17 of pregnancy, we established neonatal rat models of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury by exposing pregnant rats to lipopolysaccharide. These results show that hUC-MSCs can help support neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury due to maternal immune activation by inhibition of PTBP-1 expression and astrocyte activation.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35535905


Single-cell transcriptomics of resected human traumatic brain injury tissues reveals acute activation of endogenous retroviruses in oligodendrocytes

Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of persistent functional brain dysfunction and results in a robust, yet poorly understood, neuroinflammatory response that contributes to long-term pathology. Here, we used single-nuclei RNA-sequencing to measure transcriptomic changes in various cell populations from human brain tissue obtained acutely after severe, life-threatening TBI. Thus, oligodendrocytes undergo a conversion to an immune-like cell state shortly after TBI, indicating an important role in the development of neuroinflammation.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR541838


A new brain-cutting device and ultraviolet resin-mounted human brain slices as a teaching adjunct for neuroanatomy education.

Although the level of neuroscience research is increasing with the introduction of new technologies, neuroanatomy education remains at the traditional level and needs to be adjusted to meet educator and trainee needs. Moreover, we've introduced a new three-dimensional printed device for making human brain slices; moreover, we've established a simple method for producing semi-permanent ultraviolet resin-mounted brain slice specimens for neuroanatomy education. Through the HBCM, we obtained brain slices of uniform thickness; the resulting brain slices were especially useful for investigating morphological characteristics of the human brain. In addition, we made semi-permanent brain serial specimens from an acrylic skull slice frame and UV-curable resin, which was highly compatible with moist bio-specimens. No air bubble formation nor color change occurred during UV resin curing. We also did 3D modeling by stacking brain slice images that distinguished the cortical area and nine subregions by manual segmentation.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36073345


Increased rates of brain protein synthesis during [N1,N2] sleep: L-[1- 11 C]leucine PET studies in human subjects.

To find how rCPS is affected by sleep, we measured regional cerebral protein synthesis rates in human subjects. Subjects underwent three consecutive L-[1-11 C]leucine PET scans with simultaneous polysomnography: 1. rested up, 2. sleep-deprived awake, and 3. sleep. According to the assumption that measured rCPS is the weighed sum of rCPS in each stage, variations in sleep stage times during sleep scans were used to estimate rCPS in sleep stages, with rCPS estimated as the time and availability of [11 C]leucine in that period. During sleep scans, subjects spent the majority of the time in N2, N3, awake, and REM; rCPS in N1, N3, and REM could not be determined accurately; rCPS in N1, N3, and awake. Estimated rCPS in N3 were statistically significant in a few regions relative to N3's N3 results, which were similar to those in sleep-deprived awake scans.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36071616


Dynamic 18F-Pretomanid PET imaging reveals excellent brain penetration in animal models of TB meningitis and first-in-human studies

Pretomanid is a nitroimidazole antimicrobial with potent activity against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is approved in combination with bedaquiline and linezolid for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In mouse and rabbit models of TB meningitis, Dynamic PET demonstrated high CNS penetration, according to pretomanid. Antibiotic levels were spatially divided, and cerebrospinal fluid levels did not correlate with those in the brain parenchyma. The bacterial toxicity of the BPaL regimen in the mouse model of TB meningitis was evidently inferior to the standard TB regimen, owing to reduced penetration of bedaquiline and linezolid into the brain parenchyma. Ultimately, the brain parenchyma was at a much higher rate in the brain parenchyma than the CNS, with excellent penetration of pretomanid and CNS by six healthy volunteers. These findings have monetary implications for the development of new antibiotic treatments for TB meningitis.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR540659


Recombinant human erythropoietin induces neuroprotection, activates MAPK/CREB pathway, and rescues fear memory after traumatic brain injury with delayed hypoxemia in mice.

We hypothesized that the recombinant human erythropoietin administration would prevent injury in a mixed injury model of TBI and delayed hypoxemia. We hypothesized that hypotheses were reduced in a combined injury model of TBI and delayed hypoxemia. We investigated how continuous rhEPO treatment influenced neurogenesis, neuroprotection, synaptic density, and, behavioral outcomes early after TBI, as well as long-term effects six months after injury using a clinically relevant murine model of TBI and delayed hypoxemia. We observed a dramatic rise in cued-fear memory in the rhEPO-injured mice at 1-month post-injury, compared to vehicle-injured mice. At 6 months post-injury, the hippocampus and amygdala were treated with early rhEPO therapy after injury decreased neurodegeneration and increased excitatory synaptic density. These results, in summary, show that continued rhEPO therapy initiated at a clinically acceptable time point improves neurological, cognitive, and histological outcomes after TBI in the context of secondary hypoxemic insults.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36075467


An automated BIDS-App for brain segmentation of human fetal functional MRI data

funcmasker-flex, a new BIDS App for masking fetal fMRI, which resolves these issues with a robust 3D convolutional neural network architecture incorporated in an extensible and transparent Snakemake workflow. Manual brain masks from 159 fetuses were used for training and testing the U-net model, according to open-access fetal fMRI results. The program is freely available and can be applied to any BIDS dataset containing fetal bold sequences. And when applied to new fetal functional datasets, funcmasker-flex minimizes the need for manual segmentation, resulting in significant time savings for performing fetal fMRI analysis.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR540312


Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells transplantation for perinatal brain injury.

Hemoblast stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, and others are present in human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells has shown significant success and safety in animal and clinical trials for the treatment of perinatal brain injury. In this report, we will investigate human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells transplantation for perinatal brain injury.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36064459


Guanidinium and amide CEST mapping of human brain by high spectral resolution CEST at 3 T.

Purpose: With the high spectral resolution of CEST and the polynomial Lorentzian line-shape fitting, the human brain was able to extract amide and amide CEST on the human brain at 3 T MRI. To demonstrate the fitting range and the contribution to the amide and GuanCEST, NMR spectra on the egg white phantoms were obtained. GuanCEST can be extracted with the PLOF technique at 3 T, with the optimum B1=0. 6bcT in gray matter established. In both WM and GM for ssEPI, the coefficients of variability of the amide and Guan CEST are significantly higher than those of cwGRASE. Between ssEPI and cwGRASE, there were completely different WM/GM comparisons for Guan and amide CEST. Conclusion Guan and amide CEST mapping can be carried out by the HSR-CEST at 3 T combing with the PLOF technique.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36063502

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions