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Human Brain - ClinicalTrials.gov

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Last Updated: 11 January 2023

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Human Brain Mapping of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) During Sleep and Wakefulness

OBJECTIVES: The primary goals are to determine if there is an increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient in the human brain during sleep relative to the awake state, and to determine if they differ across brain regions. The scan taken before falling asleep will also show whether ADC changes with sleep are related to subjective experience of restful sleep, as well as those taken shortly after awakening. We encourage you to recruit up to 20 healthy volunteers in order to establish the most MR parameters and pulse sequence that can be used for optimal ADC signal detection. The main and secondary findings reported above are included in Research Phase I and research Phase II, as well as the main and secondary findings identified above. Only if we show that ADC significantly differs during sleep compared to awake state will we progress to phase II. Following two nights of night stays to measure brain ADC, the participants will spend three nights in the clinical center and two others will have two MRI scan sessions; one while awake and the other while asleep. For the first two nights of the three nights, we'll simultaneously record the electroencephalogram and ECG on the participants as they sleep, which will allow us to compare ECG results to their EEG results, which is the gold standard for measuring sleep.

Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02311374


The Immune Response of the Human Brain in Survivors of Critical Illness

Both patients and almost every second patient have long-term cognitive impairment in each second patient, and regardless of trauma severity. Hypoxia, hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and/or inflammation are the underlying causes of brain injury in ICU-survivors without head trauma or stroke, but with cognitive impairment, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and/or inflammation are among the causes of brain injury in ICU-survivors without head trauma or stroke, but not with cognitive impairment. Using this strategy, surgical patients had a downregulation of glia activation in the early postoperative period and then a further increase of the brain immune system 3 months postoperatively. Because ICU survivors regularly experience cognitive decline that affects quality of life, it's important to know the effects of unresolved brain immune activation on cognitive function. Notably, this is the first attempt to translate findings from animal ICU models of brain immune activation and local intracranial cytokine release to the human ICU population. After trauma and chronic illness, the investigators are hoping to provide new insights and a more comprehensive picture of the relationship between human brain immune stimulation, peripheral immune stimulation, and cognitive dysfunction after trauma and critical illness. Hypothesis The investigators hypothesize that unresolved brain activation in trauma patients after intensive care therapy closely correlates with persistent cognitive decline. After 3 months and then 12 months, the research design and layout of the study will be carried out in a prospective research where a research group exposed to trauma and intensive care will be tested with continuous PET imaging and biomarkers and cognitive evaluation within 3 weeks of the injury. Twenty trauma patients admitted in the ICU will be included in the study group. Twenty adult male and female trauma patients with an ISS-score of more than 15, according to a new intensive care unit, will be included. After an interview, a member of the research group will recruit the patients on dismissal from the ICU or after arrival on the ward. Subject withdrawal Study participants are able to discontinue their participation in the ongoing research studies at any time without giving a reason. If the investigator recommends it for any medical purpose, the study participants can also permanently stop taking part in the study. According to ATLS -guidelines, all trauma patients with a significant injury will arrive in the Trauma Unit at Karolinska University Hospital in Solna, Stockholm, and will receive routine examination and acute trauma care coordination. Following the initial MRI scan and the design of an individual helmet for PET scan procedures, the patient will be scheduled for the first PET scanning. PET-imaging: Arterial or venous blood testing will be conducted at three weeks, three months, and 12 months. For later analysis of immune cell phenotypes, blood borne immune cells will be collected. According to Pearson correlation analysis, the percentage change in VT will be related to similar shifts in cognitive test variables. Pearson correlation analysis will determine a similar relationship between changes in VT and blood biomarkers of inflammation. Principal component analysis will be used to reduce the dimensionality of biomarker results and to gain insight into the relationship between neuroinflammation and cognitive decline.

Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05245253


Swiss Cerebral Palsy Registry

Persons with CP suffer from a number of comorbidities, including epilepsy, speech, hearing or vision problems, cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disorders, and secondary musculoskeletal disorders, in addition to motor dysfunction. CP is the most common cause of physical disability in children in Switzerland, and it is important that the researchers have a better understanding of its incidence, risk factors, recent medical research, and the needs of those affected and their families. To achieve this goal, the establishment of a national registry for the collection of representative, complete, and longitudinal data from children, adolescents, and adults with CP in Switzerland is essential. How to Treat a Child During a visit to a hospital or clinic that writes and orally about the Swiss-CP-Reg, the treating physician advises the family after a CP diagnosis of a child. 580 people with CP have been diagnosed with CP from 2017 to 2021, according to the Swiss-CP-Reg network, who see new diagnosed patients with CP at regular intervals and continuously analyze and report findings. Funding: The Cerebrally Palsied Child, Anna Mueller Grocholski Foundation, Swiss Academy of Childhood Disability SACD, Hand in Hand Anstalt, Ostschweizer Kinderspital and the ACCENTUS Charitable Foundation.

Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04992871


Brain Inflammation and Function in Alcoholism

In extreme cases, alcohol use in large doses has been attributed to cognitive decline, which can lead to dementia. In humans, we examine whether there is inflammation in the brain of alcoholics and if present, we will see if it recovers after at least three weeks of abstinence as compared to groups. The aim of Phase II is to determine if there are differences in inflammation in the brain of AUD participants who either stop drinking for at least three weeks or relapse for at least three weeks. Secondary findings are used to determine the neurochemical consequences of inflammation as determined by: regional brain glucose metabolism, functional brain stimulation to cognitive tasks, structural brain imaging, resting functional connectivity, and neuropsychological testing. The study population: Participants with alcohol use disorder as per DSM IV or DSM 5 AUD and healthy controls. Relapsers will be eligible for Phase II if they continued to drink alcohol or stopped smoking alcohol after Phase I.

Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02233868


Brain Stimulation and Electroencephalography Pilot Study

Participants will first perform functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, where structural and resting-state functional photographs will be obtained. An EEG cap will be placed on the participant's head and the resting motor threshold will be established to calibrate the TMS intensity needed for target regions' stimulation. Once set-up procedures are complete, eleven total blocks of TMS with simultaneous EEG recording will be used.

Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05665634


Brain Networks of Turning Performance With Aging and Stroke

Participants in a 2 week long walking and turning locomotor learning project while receiving a group dependent stimulus such as tDCS or sham stimulation. Turning while walking is often impaired for older adults and people who have suffered a stroke, according to the CONTROL Walking Study infrastructure. This research will investigate multiple aspects of turning performance in older adults as well as neurophysiological brain stimulation using transcranial magnetic stimulation, which is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation. The investigators will focus on the following objectives: Aim 1 will investigate the possibility that more cortical inhibition will be correlated with shorter turn times and 180 degree turns. Participants with greater baseline cortical inhibition will have greater 360 degree and 180 degree turning gains, according to Specific Aim 2's hypothesis.

Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05475236


Brain Responses to Contextual Influences on Drinking Decisions

This research seeks to investigate brain activity involved with making decisions about drinking alcohol in everyday life, some of which may entail significant activities taking place next day. The secondary objectives are to determine whether the severity of alcohol-related problems is related to brain function and alcohol choices, as well as determining how different areas of the brain communicate in interconnected networks. During the MRI scan, participants will complete hypothetical alcohol purchase tasks, with two conditions being investigated.

Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04895033


Estimation of Brain Biomechanics Using MRI

In this research, we will develop and use imaging technologies to perform the first three-dimensional measurements of brain biomechanics during mild head movement in healthy human subjects. Biomechanics is the application of mechanics, or the physical characteristics of organisms, when force is applied to an object, to the anatomical structure and/or function of organisms. Such techniques will be useful in designing computational models of brain biomechanics, learning variability of brain biomechanics across individual attributes, such as age and sex, and determining brain sub-structures at risk of injury when head movement is accelerated, such as during a traumatic event. Measurements will be done on 194 healthy men and women aged 18-65. With one of two head support units that allows for a narrow range of motion, the model places a human subject in a magnetic resonance scanner. Each head support is glued so that it can be released by the subject, and will result in either a rotation of the head of approximately 30 degrees or a flexion-extension of the head of around 4 degrees. The subject repeats the movement repeatedly during the MR scan under their own volition and desired speed to measure head and brain movement. To investigate brain stiffness, we'll also use magnetic resonance elastography, which measures brain activity in response to mild head vibrations.

Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01633268


Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy in Movement Disorders

Objectives The primary objectives of this protocol are: To provide DBS therapy and follow-up care To maintain a cohort of patients treated with DBS who can participate in other NIH studies describing the effectiveness of functional surgery and the relevant physiology, a sample of patients treated with DBS is able to participate in other NIH protocols addressing the effectiveness of functional surgery and the relevant physiology. Patients will be referred for the surgical intervention by the Northern Ireland Surgical Neurology Branch or to collaborating surgeons in the community at that time. The patients will be followed for at least two years, and after that time, they will have the opportunity to return their care to the neurologists in the community or continue to receive care with the NIH Neurology team until care in the area is available. DBS electrode position and clinical changes for PD patients The Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale can be used to determine the effects of DBS before and after surgery using clinically-derived data. To assess the effects of DBS before and after surgery on quality of life in PD patients, The author of the Dystonia and ET patients. The objective measurements of clinical dependence of DBS will be determined by statistical method to determine clinical correlations of DBS and postoperative changes in DBS.

Source link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02119611

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions