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Swyer syndrome is a disorder that causes sex growth. Sex formation generally follows a predictable route based on an individual's chromosomes; however, in Swyer syndrome, sex growth is not normal for the affected individual's chromosomes. Both of the 46 chromosomes, X and Y, are identified as sex chromosomes because they help determine whether a person will have male or female reproductive organs. Girls and women have two X chromosomes, while boys and men have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Individuals with In Swyer syndrome have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome in each cell, which is the pattern common in boys and men; however, they have female reproductive organs. People with Swyer syndrome have female external genitalia and some feminine reproductive organs. Dysgenesis in 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis has also been described as "abnormal growth," in the medical term "dysgenesis. " Babies with Swyer syndrome are typically raised as children and develop a female gender identity, a person's sense of their gender. Before birth, at birth, or later if a child does not go through puberty as expected, Swyer syndrome may be identified. Hormone replacement therapy is also important for bone health, as it helps reduce the risk of low bone mass and fragile bones. Women with Swyer syndrome do not produce eggs, but if they do have a uterus, they may be able to become pregnant with a donated egg or embryo.
People with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome have abnormally low levels of hormones that promote sexual growth, which are typically present during adolescence. Whether hormone replacement therapy or a male voice are still missing, affected individuals do not exhibit secondary sexual characteristics such as pubic hair, breast growth in females, or a decreasing voice in males without hormone replacement therapy. Females with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome do not have functional ovaries and instead have undeveloped clumps of tissue identified as streak gonads. In females impacted, the uterus may also be small or absent. Males with this disorder have testes that show little to no sperm. As a result, people with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome have a tendency to reproduce children. Nearly all affected individuals have diabetes mellitus by their mid-twenties, and they may also have reduced thyroid hormone production. People with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome have hair loss that starts in childhood and then gets worse, often resulting in the loss of all scalp hair during adulthood. Eyelashes and eyebrows are sparse or absent, and affected men have little to no facial hair. More than half of people with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome have neurological disorders. The hearing difficulties arise after the individual has learned spoken language, usually in adolescence. Through medical imaging, abnormal deposits of iron in the brain have been identified in some of the affected individuals. Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome is also known as a part of a group of disorders linked to brain iron accumulation that leads to neurodegeneration.
People who have never smoked have a long history of lung cancer; however, the condition can also occur in people who have never smoked. When examined under a microscope, lung cancer is generally divided into two categories, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is quickly growing, and in more than half of cases, the disease has spread outside of the lung by the time the disease is identified. Most people with small cell lung cancer have been alive for about one year after diagnosis; less than half live for five years. Non-small cell lung cancers that do not appear to be adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas are included in this category.
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