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Hepatitis B - PLOS

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Last Updated: 11 June 2022

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Population and sub-national (district) level diversity in missed and dropout of different doses of hepatitis-B vaccine among Indian children aged 12–59 months

"Initiating with a birth dose and a complete immunization against hepatitis-B is extremely important early on in a world like India where maternal screening of hepatitis-B surface antigen is almost negligible, with a significant risk of vertical transmission among children. " It is also evident that hepatitis-B coverage is lowest among all other vaccination doses included in the universal immunization program. The National Family Health Survey, 2015–u201316, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 196,654 children aged 12–u201359 months from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, the National Family Health Survey, 2015-2013. During 2016, 38% of the children skipped the birth dose nationally, and 57% of the children did not complete immunization of hepatitis-B. Identifying high risk population sub-groups and districts with children in the greater danger of missing the birth and consecutive doses informs the existing knowledge base and aids in the development of community-oriented policies and programs. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000243


Evaluating the potential cost-effectiveness of microarray patches to expand access to hepatitis B birth dose vaccination in low-and middle-income countries: A modelling study

"While timely birth dose vaccination is the most effective in preventing hepatitis B elimination, policymatic measures for giving new vaccine presentations to births outside of health care facilities are lacking coverage in several low- and middle-income countries. " Using a mathematical model, the cost-effectiveness of using MAPs to expand coverage was evaluated within 80 LMICs offering universal hepatitis B birth dose vaccination. Three potential per dose MAP prices, as well as two potential use-cases: MAPs are used by lay-health professionals to extend birth dose coverage outside of health facility boundaries; and, MAPs are also used by qualified health workers, replacing a portion of existing vaccination vials. "Our results show that MAPs are expected to be a cost-effective or cost-saving measure to extend the reach of birth dose vaccination in LMICs even at higher procurement rates.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000394


Hepatitis B virus X protein counteracts high mobility group box 1 protein-mediated epigenetic silencing of covalently closed circular DNA

"HBV X protein is classified as a ccDNA transcription activator," the transcription initiator. In this research, we developed a dual system of the inducible reporter cell lines modelling disease with wildtype and HBx-null HBV, with both containing the HA-tagged HBeAg as a semi-quantitative marker for ccDNA transcription. ChIP-qPCR assay in both the HBV stable cell lines and infection systems in vitro showed its elevated correlation to HBx-null ccDNA. Moreover, experimental downregulation of HMGB1 in HBx-null HBV-inducible and infection models culminated in transcriptional reactivation of the ccDNA minichromosome, as well as a shift of the ccDNA-associated histones to a euchromatic state, triggering histone PTMs landscape and subsequent tightening of ccDNA transcription. Our findings show that HMGB1 is a novel host restriction factor of HBV ccDNA with an epigenetic silencing device, which can be counteracted by viral transcription activator HBx. Author summary: Hepatitis B virus infection remains a significant threat to global health today, despite worldwide healthcare. Chronic HBV infection has no cure so far, owing to the lack of treatments that can eliminate an intrahepatic persistent HBV DNA variant of the HBV DNA genome, namely, the covalently closed circular DNA. ccDNA hijacks host genetic and regulatory factors to assemble into a minichromosome within the infected liver cells, resulting in a minichromosome, but certain intrinsic host factors are able to counteract ccDNA activity. "This may lead to a better understanding of virus-host interaction during HBV infection, as well as the production of HBV infection epigenetic kits and re-consideration of cancer therapeutics options, where HMGB1 is used as an anti-cancert. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1010576


Estimating the causal effect of treatment with direct-acting antivirals on kidney function among individuals with hepatitis C virus infection

"Methods: We analyzed electronic health record data for DAA-naive patients with chronic HCV infection in Boston Medical Center's HCV care between 2014 and 2018. We estimated and compared the risk for patients with chronic kidney disease at baseline eGFR> 90 ml/min/1. 73 million2 under each intervention.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0268478


Predictors of Hepatitis B screening and vaccination status of young psychoactive substance users in informal settlements in Kampala, Uganda

"Results: About 13. 3% and 2. 7% of the respondents had been tested for Hepatitis B and completed the Hepatitis B vaccination program respectively. " Hepatitis B vaccine prevention was demonstrated by u201cever screening in Hepatitis B infection; completion of the Hepatitis B vaccine regimen; and the belief that the Hepatitis B vaccine is safe in preventing Hepatitis B virus infection were correlated with u201cever screeningu201d for Hepatitis B. Knowledge of the recommended Hepatitis B vaccine dose was essential in preventing Hepatitis B infection, as well as the fact that the hepatitis B vaccine is safe in preventing Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Our findings reveal a low incidence of Hepatitis B testing and completion of the Hepatitis B vaccination program among young psychoactive substance users in informal settings.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0267953


Burden of disease and associated complications of hepatitis a in children and adults in Mexico: A retrospective database study

"Background: Hepatitis A virus infection in children is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in children, but the HAV vaccine is not included in Mexico's national immunization program. " 0. 8 percent in the average hospitalization rate/year as a result of HAV infection. Although HAV's highest burden continued to be in children, an rise in prevalence and hospitalizations among older age groups was observed. The total direct costs of medical care due to HAV and other disorders were estimated at $382 million Mexican pesos. Conclusion: The overall results show an increase in HAV infections in adolescents/adults in comparison to Mexican children. Hence, as the overall risk of HAV infection decreases, the mean age of infection rises. Our results show that including the activated HAV vaccine in the Mexican NIP would have been a benefit.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0268469


Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in the Americas: Estimates from a systematic review and meta-analysis

"Background: Hepatitis E virus infection is responsible for inflammatory liver disease and can cause serious health issues. " We conducted a systematic analysis in order to obtain evidence for targeted prevention campaigns because the seropreval of HEV within various population groups and regions of the continent differ. Our random-effects GLMM pooled total estimate for past infection was 7. 7% with high heterogeneity. We discovered elevated seroprevalence in some population groups, including those with pig-related exposure for IgG or people with diagnosed or suspected acute viral hepatitis for IgM. The key risk factors for HEV infection are age, exposure to pigs and meat products, and poor socioeconomic conditions. HEV infection epidemic risk factors and seropreval were both higher in this population group and identified risk factors for the disease have to be prioritized for further study. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0269253


Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus infections among people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis

"Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus coinfection with hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus has risen to a significant public health issue globally, especially in Africa, where these viruses are endemic. " HBV and/or HCV coinfection with HIV in Africa are epidemiological evidence, but no systematic studies have reported results on the incidence of this coinfection. In Africa, this research was done to determine the prevalence and case fatality of HBV and/or HCV infections among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HCV) bacteria. The seropreval of HBV and HCV infection in PLHIV were 17. 1% [95% CI = 11. 5 percent CI = 0. 9] and 2. 9 percent [95% CI = 0. 9 percent CI = 0. 9 percent] respectively, based on HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA testing. HIV-coinfected patients' HIV testing and care should be included in African public health services, which should emphasize the need to obtain and follow WHO recommendations on viral hepatitis screening and treatment.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0269250

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions