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Hepatitis A Vaccine - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 23 April 2022

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Lower frequency of T stem cell memory (TSCM) cells in hepatitis B vaccine nonresponders.

Despite the availability of an effective vaccine and antiviral drugs, hepatitis B is still a global public health issue. Hepatitis B vaccination can help prevent the disease. We compared the frequency of CD4+ memory T cell subsets between responders and nonresponders to HB vaccination here. Besides, the frequency of IFN-+ memory T cells was compared between study groups. Between responder and nonresponder groups, there was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of CD4 + CD95 + CD4 + CD95 Hi, and CD4 + CD95 Hi, as well as CD4 + CD95 Hi. However, the comparison of the frequency of memory T cells producing IFN- showed no differences. Our findings showed a potential absence in immune CD4 + memory T cell formation in nonresponders due to their lower frequency of CD4 + T SCM cells.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35445310


Seroclearance of HBsAg in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients after a Tolerance-Breaking Therapy: GM-CSF, followed by Human HBV Vaccine

ABSTRACT Objectivity Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen is still a challenge to the clinical treatment of HBV infection due to a HBV-specific immune tolerance that does not prevents virus eradication. Methods In this research, chronic hepatitis B patients treated with Adefovir Dipivoxil, ADV, and IFN- were immunized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in combination with Human HBV Vaccine. Conclusions Our results support the scientific importance of finding a new way to combat immunotolerance in chronic hepatitis B patients. Chronic hepatitis B virus infections can be controlled by antiviral agents, but not all symptoms can be treated or fully eradicated. In addition to the standard anti-viral therapy, immunotherapeutic strategies may violate HBV-initiation established immunotolerance and, in turn, achieve or reactivation of host anti-HBV immunity, which can be achieved in HBV-related animal models. In this review, we found that some HBsAg seroclearance in CHB patients were treated with a 3-day GM-CSF-infused a HBV vaccine for six treatments within one year, in comparison to the traditional anti-viral therapy. T cells of HBsAg declined in responders in a way that was not consistent with the cell's physiology, and was closely linked to the dynamic changes of HBsAg-specific IFN- +CD4+ and IFN-+ T cells over time.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR483480


Seroprotection of Hepatitis B Vaccine in Dental Students Two Decades after Infant Immunization and the Possible Need for Revaccination.

Objectives This report was designed to determine hepatitis B surface antibody persistence among dental students two decades after infant vaccination and immune responses following revaccination or booster dose in nonimmune groups. In groups I and II, the basal antibody titer of each group was correlated to the student's gender and birth year, as well as postrevaccination or booster dose titer. ANOVA was used to compare blood titers of students, as well as baseline and postrevaccination antibody levels for nonimmune students with nonprotective antibody titers. The three classes of anti-HBs antibody titers were also found among students with different birth dates, which was not statistically significant. In both genders, a significant difference was observed between mean baseline and postrevaccination antibody titers, with a higher rate of post revaccination.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35436788


SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, a new autoimmune hepatitis trigger?

SARS-CoV2 infection and vaccination against this virus have been attributed to autoimmune disease outbreaks. After the SARS-COV2 vaccine, we see a case of autoimmune hepatitis. Male, 76 years old, with a history of hepatic cirrhosis secondary to primary biliary cholangitis, was compensated, treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and obeticholic acid. In December 2021, the patient was administered his third dose of the SARS-CoV2 vaccine. Patient's altered liver test revealed an elevated liver test, with elevations of ALT and AST in subsequent analytical analysis. A liver biopsy was performed, finding high-level lobular hepatitis and centrilobular necrosis in areas of centrilobular necrosis. A case of AIH with SARS-CoV2 vaccination as a potential trigger has recently been reported, with characteristics similar to ours. In conclusion, vaccination has been shown that vaccination can cause the formation of autoimmune pathology in patients at risk. Our reported case supports the assertion that there is a link between AIH and the SARS-CoV2 vaccine.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35373571


Association Between 2-Dose vs 3-Dose Hepatitis B Vaccine and Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Importance In prelicence trials, the two-dose hepatitis B vaccine with a cytosine phosphatadjuvant caused more seroprotection than in a prelicensure trial with an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. However, in 1 trial, a greater number of acute myocardial infarction events were observed among those who received the HepB-CpG vaccine than those who received the HepB-alum vaccine, a finding that needs further investigation. Objectivia: To determine the incidence of acute MI among HepB-CpG vaccine recipients and HepB-alum vaccine recipients of HepB-CpG vaccine and HepB-alum vaccine recipients. The study included 69 625 adults not under dialysis who received at least 1 dose of a hepatitis B vaccine in either family medicine or internal medicine departments at KPSC from August 7, 2018 to October 31, 2019. Individuals were followed for 13 months after the index dose was used for type 1 acute MI. According to the estimated hazard ratio of acute MI among HepB-CpG vaccine recipients of HepB-alum vaccine recipients, the estimated hazard ratio of acute MI was estimated, with the inverse probability of treatment weighting adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. 73 type 1 acute MI events were reported among HepB-CpG vaccine recipients for a rate of 1. 67 per 1000 individuals, and 71 type 1 acute MI events were reported among HepB-CpG vaccine recipients for a rate of 1. 86 per 1000 person-years. Conclusions and relevance of this cohort study The receipt of HepB-CpG vaccine in comparison to HepB-alum vaccine did not meet the statistical criteria for elevated risk of acute myocardial infarction.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35333303


Immunogenicity and safety of 4 intramuscular standard-dose and high-dose hepatitis B vaccine in people living with HIV: a randomized, parallel-controlled trial.

Objects It is unsatisfactory in the people living with HIV as a result of the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine. Among PLHIV's, the aim was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of the four standard-dose and high-dose regimens of hepatitis B vaccine. The key outcome outcomes were weeks 12 and 28, including the seroconversion rate, high-responder rate, and geometric mean concentration of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. The GMC of anti-HBs in both the IM20 4 and IM60 4 groups was significantly higher than those in the IM20 3 group this week, and the GMC of anti-HBs in both IM20 4 and IM60 4 groups was significantly higher than those in the IM20 3 group, and it was statistically larger in the IM60 4 group than in the IM20 4 group IM20 IM60 4 group was significantly higher in the IM20 4 and IM20 IM60 IM20 IM60 IM20 IM60 4 group was significantly higher than those in the IM20 4 group than those in the IM20 4 group than those in the IM20 4 In the IM60 4 group, the GMC of anti-HBs was numerically higher than that in the IM20 4 group.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35312441


Mother to Infant Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus in the Face of Neonatal Immunization Is Not Necessarily Primary Vaccine Failure.

Background Surveillance studies in infants born to hepatitis B virus-infected mothers provide the ability to determine virological markers from the neonate and early infanthood. These findings reveal how HBV infection transmission is handled and how available interventions can be more effective at detecting HBV infections arising at the mother/child relationship. Methods A retrospective review of HBV serological markers was conducted in dried blood spots collected from infants born to mothers infected with HBV. Despite receiving prophylaxis, maternal molecular testing was carried out in newborn blood spot cards, which were collected after birth, from infants found to have HBV infected with HBV. To minimize the perinatal risk of HBV infection, the perinatal risk of HBV transmission should be minimized as well as the completion of the immunization program.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/34251456


Utility of urinary cytokine levels as predictors of the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of AS01-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine in healthy adults.

Following the injection of AS01 B-adjuvanted HBV surface antigen vaccine, we measured concentrations of 24 cytokines in the urine from 30 hepatitis B virus-nave adults to see vaccine responses to an AS01 B-adjuvanted vaccine. Following a single placebo injection, which was administered 1 month before the first vaccination in the same individuals, Levels post-dose 2 were compared to those measured following a single placebo injection. Interestingly, urinary IP-10 levels at 1 day post-second vaccination were strongly related to the systemic response mechanism's contemporaneity scores, but not with the local reactogenicity scores or peak antibody responses. In larger studies, the use of urinary IP-10 as a potential systemic vaccine reactant biomarker of systemic vaccine reactionogenicity needs to be substantiated.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35367070


Assessing the impact of the routine childhood hepatitis B immunization program and the need for hepatitis B vaccine birth dose in Sierra Leone, 2018.

Sierra Leone is highly endemic for hepatitis B virus infection and has therefore recommended three doses of hepatitis B virus vaccine from 6 weeks of age, but does not recommend a birth dose to prevent mother-to-child transmission. All HBsAg-positive and one HBsAg-negative mother per cluster were tested for HBV surface antigen rapid test; one HBsAg-negative mother per cluster was tested for HBV antibodies; one HBsAg-negative mother per cluster was tested for HBV markers. HBV e antigen, and HBV DNA levels in children were all correlated with maternal HBsAg, HBV e antigen, and HBV DNA values greater than 200 000 IU/mL. According to infant HepB vaccination, the incidence of HBsAg was lower among children than mothers, for whom HepB was not available, suggesting that routine infant HepB vaccination reduced HBV risk. Since HBsAg positivity in children was strongly connected to maternal HBV infection, the majority of the HBsAg-positive children in the survey received HepB3, HepB-BD, can reduce MTCT and persistent HBV infection.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35361502


Protection and Antibody Levels 35 Years after Primary Series with Hepatitis B Vaccine and Response to a Booster Dose.

Background Information The duration of hepatitis B vaccination protection in infants and adults is uncertain. We used three doses of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine to immunize a group of 1578 Alaska Native adults and children from 15 Alaska communities that were 6 months old or older in 1981. Those with a B vaccine recombinant hepatitis B vaccine booster dose was delivered 2-4 weeks later and then assessed on the basis of anti-HBs results 30 days post-booster. Among the 320 people interviewed, 112 people were not included in the 22 nor 30-year follow-up study, and 208 people were involved but not given an HBV booster dose. After the primary series was correlated with higher anti-HBs levels at 35 years, the initial anti-HBs level was lower. None of the 8 people who tested positive for anti-HBc were tested positive for HBsAg nor HBV DNA.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35320592

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions