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Humans and buildings have negative effects from the cloud to ground lightning. Lightning flashes can be located more precisely and with higher detection accuracy, which can be a new innovation. A lightning locating system was developed and installed at University Technology Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia, to find the cloud to ground lightning discharges in a study area of 400 km2. In this research, a particle swarm optimization algorithm was used as the combination mediator to determine the optimal point of the lightning strike's location. The findings of the detected lightning strikes by PSO-based LLS were verified using an industrial lightning detection device for December and March. The experimental results show that the mean distance differences between the PSO-based LLS and the industrial LLS within the study area varied from 0 to 573 m. , so the suggested PSO-based LLS is both accurate and reliable to locate and map lightning discharges within the coverage area. Although an industrial LLS monitors a large area or a region with many sensors, the reported lightning discharges and statistical analysis of the captured flashes are not available to public people. In the meantime, lightning strikes estimation and localization of lightning strikes are both necessary for the public to avoid the dangers related to lightning discharges. PSO-based LLS offers an accurate lightning detection system for a particular local area and can be expanded to regional scale in other regions of the world.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR526667
Many areas in Ethiopia are flooded, and Ambo, as other tropical cities in Ethiopia, is suffering a flash flood that can be minimized by giving priority to flood hazard steps. In GIS environs, this research was done to map flood hazard maps along the Huluka River using GIS, HEC-HMS, and HEC-RAS. When the release of a stream exceeds the bank-full stage along the river, Flood Hazard mapping is used to identify the zones that are more vulnerable to flooding along the river. Flood frequency analysis was carried out using the frequency storm generator developed by HEC-HMS for 10, 25, 50, and 100-year return periods. Flood inundation mapping for 98. 9ha, 102ha, 104ha, and 106. 4 ha was predicted for a peak flood in each return period.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR526573
Here we include TC and heatwave projections, as well as power outage and recovery process analysis to see how TC-blackout-heatwave compounds hazard risk in a transitional environment, with Harris County, Texas as an example. The chance of Harris residents living at least one longer-than-five-day TC-blackout-heatwave compound hazard in a 20-year span could rise by a factor of 23 over the 21st century. We also show that a modest expansion of the power distribution network can greatly reduce the risk of compound hazards.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35907874
The current research focuses on a comprehensive probabilistic seismic hazard study for Lebanon, a country vulnerable to a high seismic risk due to a Levant fault system. The source model built is based on a smoothed seismicity earthquake prediction based on the Lebanese instrumental catalog, as well as a fault map containing major and best-defined faults in the area. Failure rates on faults are estimated from geological as well as geodetic slip rates, and geodetic slip rates. We establish a source model logic tree populated with the key parameters and combine this logic tree with three ground-motion models that could be useful to the Levant region. Running hazard estimates based on the logic tree, distributions of hazard estimates for selected locations, as well as seismic hazard maps for the country are among the country's scales. Considering that the PGA has been in operation for over 475 years, the hazard indices found for locations within a distance of 20 to 30 kilometers from the Levant Fault's main strand are higher than 0. 3 percent, as well as in the coastal area between Saida and Tripoli. The analysis contains comprehensive details on the hazard danger levels to expect in Lebanon, as well as the associated uncertainty, providing a solid basis for making decisions in the context of future revisions of the Lebanese building code.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR525400
Extreme hydrometeorological events, like the 2018 Valiant Storm, are increasingly affecting alpine regions, with multiple dangers compounded and cascading effects. Currently available risk assessment and prevention services may therefore be ineffective, particularly for transborder and fragile mountain areas, calling for comprehensive multi-hazard and transdisciplinary approaches. Extreme hydrometeorological events, such as the 2018 Valiant Storm, are increasingly damaging alpine areas, often compounded and with cascading effects. Both static and functional components are included in this paper. We suggest an integrated approach to multi-hazard exposure modeling in this paper. In addition, aggregation guarantees the confidentiality of sensitive information on a scale that is still useful for civil protection. The resulting model can be used for a variety of tasks, including scenario-based risk analysis and numeric simulation, probabilistic risk assessment, impact forecasting, and early warning.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR525112
Heavy rain creates a variety of eruptive and non-eruptive volcanic hazards. With continued global warming in most subaerial volcanic zones through the twentieth century, we find that extreme heavy rainfall is projected to rise with continued global warming throughout the twentieth century, greatly increasing the risk of rainfall-induced volcanic hazards. Our estimates indicate that if global warming persists unchecked, the chance of primary and secondary volcanic eruptions, such as dome explosions or flank collapse, will rise at more than 700 volcanoes around the world.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35911196
For the characterization of bacteria in pit latrine sludge, leachate, shallow and deep groundwater resources, we combined plate counting with portable MinION sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. According to Pit latrine sludge, total bacteria, E. coli, human-host-associated Bacteroides, and Vibrio cholerae, respectively, were determined by log 10 marker gene counts per 100 mL of 11. 2 0. 9, 9. 9, 6. 0, 0. 8, and 0. 8 u00b1 0. 8. Pit leachate percolation through one-meter-thick sand beds attenuated bacterial risk alerts by 1 to 4 log 10 units. HF183, a human sewage marker gene found in all shallow groundwater samples that tested positive for ompW genes, demonstrated the human origins of Vibrio cholerae hazards in the subsurface. All borehole water samples were negative for ompW and HF183 genes, but 16S RNA gene sequencing results showed ingress of faecal pollution into boreholes during the 'long rainy season,''" says the narrRNA gene sequence results.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35914337
The report aims to examine the landslide danger scenario of the Kutupalong Rohingya camp, which is one of the world's biggest humanitarian shelters for conflict-fled people. In this research, the worst-case scenario of earthquake and rainfall occurrence at the same time or one after another is considered. In the study to identify the hazard-prone areas by the factor of safety estimation, landslide friendly parameters are developed. Soil physical properties are designed in two distinct ways to account for their uncertainties; normal probabilistic distribution; and interpolation-based spatial distribution. In the factor of safety, the Peak Ground Acceleration exceedance and rainfall intensities of 50, 75, 100, 200, and 475 years have been factored in the calculation of return period. Monte-Carlo simulation using Python scripts and direct estimation methods have been used to determine the factor of safety estimation.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR523415
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