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OBJECTIVE central nervous system germ cell tumors are rare malignant tumors that occur mostly in adolescents and young adults. Despite the fact that CNS GCTs are more prevalent in East Asia than in Western countries, detailed comparative studies of these CNS GCT populations are limited. The Intracranial Germ Cell Tumor Genome Analysis Consortium was established in 2011, and more than 200 cases of GCTs are available for both tumor tissue and clinical data, which is managed by the National Cancer Center in Japan. However, there was a significant difference in the tumor locations, specifically, the frequency of basal ganglia in the NCC database was higher at the Mayo Clinic than at the Mayo Clinic, and the bifocal location was higher at the Mayo Clinic than at the NCC.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2019.11.jns191576
OBJECTIVE The current research sought to determine the treatment and toxicities of patients with intracranial germ cell tumors. Patients with GCTs were further divided into the following four groups in the authors' u2019 study: the germinomatous group and the NGGCT groups. RESULTS The patient's median overall survival and progression-free survival rates in the germinomatous group were significantly higher than those in the NGGCT group. Only the alpha-fetoprotein status in the NGGCT intermediate prognosis and poor prognosis groups was significantly linked to worsened OS in the NGGCT intermediate prognosis and poor prognosis groups, not the alpha-fetoprotein status. CONCLUSIONS The researchers found that platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment improved survival rates in patients with germinomatous GCTs, according to the authors. In the NGGCT intermediate prognosis and poor prognosis groups, however, clinical results were still unsatisfavorable; therefore, a new strategy that improves the survival rate of patients from both groups should be considered.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.jns20638
OBJECTIVE PLACESe in CSF can provide a high diagnostic value in cases of intracranial germ cell tumors, particularly in pure germinomas, to the point of not requiring histological confirmation. This is the first systematic and comprehensive review of the diagnostic value of CSF PLAP in patients with intracranial GCTs. METHODS were evaluated from 2004 to 2014 in intracranial GCTs, with PLAP from their CSF and histological samples. All patients underwent tumor biopsy for comparison with tumor marker results in lieu of categorizing GCT cases. It was also believed that the PLAP concentration would reveal the amount of intracranial germ cell constituents of a GCT. CONCLUSIONS The current analysis is the first systematic and comprehensive review of the tumor marker PLAP in pediatric patients with intracranial GCT.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2018.3.jns172520
The authors of a multiinstitutional phase II research was conducted to develop a postsurgical combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy regimen for patients with primary germ cell tumors of the brain. Patients undergone radiation therapy underwent chemotherapy either as a result of chemotherapy (etoposide combination or ifosplatin-etoposide combination. Patients in the healthy prognosis group were treated with CARB-VP followed by local radiation therapy. Patients in the intermediate prognosis group received CARB-VP followed by local radiation therapy, and they were given five additional chemotherapy treatments. Patients in the poor prognosis group received ICE followed by complete craniospinal radiation therapy, as well as five additional chemotherapy treatments; patients in the poor prognosis group also received ICE and whole craniospinal radiation therapy. After initial administration, a 93% incidence of complete remission was found among the 56 patients with germinomas. In the group of five patients with poor prognosis, the disease in three patients progressed during chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and they died within 6 months.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/foc.19184.108.40.206
Primary intracranial germ cell tumors account for 3. 3 percent of all brain tumors and 13. 6% in patients under the age of 15 years of age in Japan. The treatment of germinoma has been effective, although there is no evidence for choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, and mixed tumors with components of the group of malignant intracranial GCTs. In 33 of 35 of 35 intracranial GCTs, expression of p53 protein was found. In seven of 35 intracranial GCTs, p21 WAF1/Cip1 was found. None of the 15 germinomas was immunoreactive for p21 WAF1/Cip1 protein, but four of five patients in a group of malignant intracranial GCTs had immunoreactivity for p21 WAF1/Cip1 protein, although four of five cases showed immunoreactivity for p21 WAF1/Cip1 protein in a series of malignant intracranial GCTs, whereas four of five cases had immunoreactivity for p21 WAF1/Cip1 protein in momas were immunoreactive for cytosominop1 protein, while four of b1 protein in glip1-Cigoutputic intracranial GCTs reported immunoreactincy in's, cytogenomic GCTs reported immunoreactin etin ronom1 protein tin c1 G1 protein t reactive intracranial G1-Cip1-Cip1-Cip1-Cip1 protein in a Overexpression of p21 WAF1/Cip1 in intracranial GCTs may increase sensitivity to radio- and chemotherapy, according to a poor prognosis.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/foc.19220.127.116.11
In up to 43% of patients with intracranial germ cell tumors, the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin-beta are elevated, and they are both helpful in the diagnosis and follow-up of such patients. HCG-beta in these patients at presentation of their lumbar cerebrospinal fluid HCG-beta is not established, according to a table. Patients with intracranial GCTs have been treated at St. Bartholomew's Hospital over the past 15 years. Four cases of pineal region GCTs had paired, elevated, blood, and lumbar CSF HCG-beta values.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/foc.1918.104.22.168
The author reviewed 153 cases of intracranial germ cell tumors from 1994, 66. 7 percent of which had monotypic histological features and 37. 3% of which were found to be mixed tumors. The majority of patients with choriocarcinoma died within two years. Patients with yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma also had poor results. Both patients with mature teratoma had 5- and 10-year survival rates of 92. 9% each. Patients with immature teratoma and malignant teratoma had a 5- and 10-year survival rate of 77%. Patients with germinoma had a 5-year survival rate of 94% and a 10-year survival rate of 97% in 10-years. Tumors derived from cells resembling the cells that appear in embryogenesis's earlier stages of embryogenesis are more harmful than those made of cells resembling the cells that appear in embryogenesis's later stages of embryogenesis.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/foc.1922.214.171.124
About 3% of malignancies in children aged 0 to 18 years old and nearly 15% of cancers in adolescents, according to a survey conducted by the National Cancer Institute in New York. GCTs in young children, according to epidemiologic and molecular data, are likely to be a distinct biological group when compared to older adolescents and adults' GCTs. Evidence is mounting that the genes and mechanisms that control normal germ cell proliferation are particularly important to the study of germ cell tumorigenesis. Perturbations in the KIT receptor signaling pathway have been uncovered by next-generation sequencing studies and genome-wide association studies of testicular cancer susceptibility.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9059382
The authors explore a rare case involving the occurrence of metachronous pure germinomas long after a mixed germ cell tumor treatment was judged with poor prognosis. A neurohypophysial germinoma occurred 4 years and 6 months after the initial diagnosis of a mixed pineal GCT with a yolk sac tumor and a germinoma was completed. In addition, intradermal germinomas occurred 21 years after the initial diagnosis of the mixed GCT and 15 years after the second treatment of the neurohypophysial germinomas. Recurrences of the germinoma component of the pineal mixed GCT's first neurohypophysial and third intramedullary germinomas may have resulted in a yolk sac tumor and a germinoma. Hence, both the second and third instances of pure germinoma were de novo metachronous GCTs that originated after the pineal mixed GCT was treated.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2012.9.peds12151
Object In both the supragear and pineal areas, intracranial germ cell tumors are common. Bifocal GCTs can be caused by synchronous tumors or by metastatic dissemination of tumor cells from one location to the other. The prognosis of bifocal GCTs has also sparked questions. Methods The authors established a single-institution patient cohort with 181 patients receiving intracranial GCTs. The clinical characteristics of bifocal GCTs were compared to those of suprasellar and pineal GCTs. Bifocal GCTs that were diagnosed as germinomas were seen as germinomas, but 5 patients had mixed GCTs. At presentation, eleven patients with bifocal GCTs demonstrated tumor seeding. Patients with bifocal germinomas had significantly shorter event-free survival and overall health than those with germinomas from a single site of origin. The authors' hypothesis that bifocal GCTs can result from the metastatic dissemination of suprasellar or pineal GCTs.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2012.10.peds11487
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