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Foot-and-mouth Disease - DOAJ

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Last Updated: 17 May 2022

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Threshold phenomena with respect to the initiation of depopulation in a simple model of foot-and-mouth disease

Early depopulation is the most effective in preventing the spread of foot-and-mouth disease, according to simulation models based on real case scenarios. The SEIIR model, which is based on state-transition, is a single farm, and we developed a simple deterministic model for FMD based on state-transition. By numerical analysis, we established the presence of the threshold condition in relation to depopulation deposition delays, and if the initiation of full-fledged depopulation eludes the established period of uncertainty, the outbreak's duration increases rapidly, resulting in a "catastrophic situation. " We also established the mechanism of the threshold phenomenon from the connection between the depopulation capacity and the rising rate of infection. The presence of the critical timing for depopulation appears to be a standard feature of FMD epidemiology, when depopulation is used as the main disease prevention tool.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2019297


Description of the pathology of a gazelle that died during a major outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Israel : clinical communication

Naturally occurring foot-and-mouth disease in wildlife is a relatively common condition, but it can be deadly in impala, South Africa, and Israeli mountain gazelles. Pathological changes in an adult male gazelle with FMD from an outbreak in the Nature Reserve of Ramot-Issachar and Israel's lower Galilee all described in this article.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v81i1.99


Summary of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks reported in and around the Kruger National Park, South Africa, between 1970 and 2009

Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in the Kruger National Park and adjacent areas of South Africa between 1970 and 2009 were collected from various government departments' reports and files and assembled into a single study. Although SAT 1 outbreaks became more widespread in the summer months, more SAT 2 outbreaks occurred in winter, no pattern could be identified, although SAT 1 outbreaks became more widespread in the summer months.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v81i4.148


Quantitative trait loci for variation in immune response to a Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus peptide

Foot-and-mouth cattle in 195 F2 and backcross Holstein Charolais were immunised with a 40-mer peptide isolated from the foot-and-mouth disease virus. T cell and antibody responses were recorded at various time points post immunization. Although there were strong correlations between genes and IgG2 traits throughout time and between IgG1 and IgG2 characteristics, no strong correlations were found between T cell and IgG2 responses. Conclusions A proportion of the variance in the T cell and antibody response post immunization with an FDMV peptide has a genetic component. The results indicate that there are specific genes or loci that influence variation in both the primary and secondary immune responses, as well as other immune responses, although some loci may be particularly relevant for early or late phases of the immune response. Future fine mapping of the QTL clusters found may reveal the causal variations that explained the observed immune response variations.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-11-107


Prototypes virus of hand, foot and mouth disease infections and severe cases in Gansu, China: a spatial and temporal analysis

In Gansu province, China, this research sought to investigate epidemic characteristics and spatial clusters of HFMD incidence rates and spatial clusters of HFMD incidence rates and determine the connection between Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16. Methods a trought of infectious disease Information System (In Gansu province, China), detailed and non-severe cases were collected from the China Infectious Disease Information System between 1st January and December 2018. To determine the correlation between the ratios of two species of viruses and the highest incidences of HFMD, a time-series cross-correlation function and regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship. SI was remarkably related to EC over a 4-week time lag, according to a time series cross-correlation report. SI was positively associated with EC, according to the regression report. The EC may be a promising early warning system for predicting severe cases of HFMD in Gansu province, according to the study.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-022-07393-4


Characterization of host factors associated with the internal ribosomal entry sites of foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever viruses

Positive-sense single-stranded RNA genomes and an internal ribosomal entry site element within 5′-untranslated regions of Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease virus and classical swine fever virus exhibit positive-sense single-stranded RNA genomes and a key ribosomal entry site element within their 5′-untranslated regions. We established cell lines expressing a bicistronic luciferase reporter plasmid with an FMDV-IRES or CSFV-IRES element present in these IRES' common host genes. To determine the common host factors associated with these IRES, we established cell lines expressing an FMDV-IRES or CSFV-IRES element present within the Renilla and firefly luciferase plasmid. First, we treated FMDV-IRES cells with Pycnogenol, a French maritime pine extract, and investigated its suppressive effect on FMDV-IRES function, as PYC has been reported to have antiviral properties.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10437-z


Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3A Hijacks Sar1 and Sec12 for ER Remodeling in a COPII-Independent Manner

Positive-stranded RNA viruses convert host organelles to create replication organelles for their own replication. The enteroviral 3A protein has been shown to be strongly connected with the COPI pathway, in which conditions control on the ER-to-Golgi intermediate and the Golgi. Hence, further research into FMDV 3A may be helpful in identifying the differences and understanding FMDV's RO formation. FMDV 3A was discovered as a peripheral membrane protein capable of changing the ER into vesicle-like structures, but not COPII vesicles nor autophagosomes in this review. Finally, we predicted that the N-terminus of 3A would interact with Sar1, as its C-terminus simultaneously communicated with Sec12, which may have the ability to increase Sar1 activation. Active Sar1 was present in 3A's ER membrane and in a 76-92 region for vesicle formation, which was located in a 42-59 and a 76–92 region.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040839


Development and Evaluation of Molecular Pen-Side Assays without Prior RNA Extraction for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)

This paper intends to present a proof-of-concept approach to a molecular diagnostic assay that is compatible with sample obtained from nasal swab sampling, but without the need for a prior nucleic acid extraction step, which may be used both PPR and FMD at pen-side. PPR and FMD sequences were found in GenBank by more than 99% of PPR and FMD sequences, indicating pan-serotype FMD and pan-lineage PPR assays. In the presence of unprocessed nasal swab eluate, the ability of the BioGene XF reagent used in this research to lyse FMD and PPR viruses and amplify their nucleic acids was tested. Both PPR and FMD viral RNA were successfully detected in all animals using either the XF or reference reagents, with nasal swabs obtained from animals before and after infection, as well as PPR and FMD viral RNA.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040835


Combining a Universal Capture Ligand and Pan-Serotype Monoclonal Antibody to Develop a Pan-Serotype Lateral Flow Strip Test for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Detection

To measure FMDV, we present the design and validation of a pan-serotype lateral flow strip test that uses recombinant bovine integrin v6 as a universal capture ligand and a pan-serotype monoclonal antibody. The LFST found all seven FMDV serotypes, where the diagnostic sensitivity was similar to the AgELISA, and diagnosis was 100% without cross-reactivity to other viruses that cause vesicular disease in cattle.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040785


Avidity of Polyclonal Antibodies to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Bovine Serum Measured Using Bio-Layer Interferometry

Foot-and-mouth disease is a disease of cloven-hoofed cattle caused by the FMD virus. FMD can be contained by the use of inactivated vaccines, and it has been well established that FMD vaccines' immunity correlates closely with neutralizing antibody titres. We performed preliminary experiments using recombinant FMDV capsids, as well as antigenic loops, to show that monoclonal antibodies targeting specific antigenic locations could be detected using BLI.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040714

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions