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Fitness - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 04 August 2022

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Enhanced replication fitness of MERS-CoV clade B over clade A strains in camelids explains the dominance of clade B strains in the Arabian Peninsula.

Although MERS-CoV strains from the Middle East region are divided into two clades, all the latest epidemic viruses are associated with clade B. As a result, MERS-CoV clade B strains may have adaptable advantages over clade A in humans and/or reservoir hosts. In an alpaca model monitoring virological and immunological characteristics, we compared an early epidemic clade A strain with a clade B strain in vivo to test this theory in vivo. In vivo, the Jordan-1/2015 strain caused an early IFN reaction, suggesting a role for ORF4a as a moderate IFN antagonist. Several clade B-specific amino acid substitutions occuring in the replicase and the S proteins, which may have led to a faster adaptation of clade B strains in camelid hosts, according to a broader understanding of clade B strains in camelid hosts. MERS-CoV clade B strains with better fitness and transmission capabilities than their clade B strains, according to differences in replication and shedding that have been reported herein.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/34918620


Associations between aerobic fitness, negative symptoms, cognitive deficits and brain structure in schizophrenia-a cross-sectional study.

As a key moderator variable, aerobic endurance training has emerged as a promising solution to these conditions in the last decade, and improved aerobic endurance has been touted as a promising step forward. We examined, in the present study, whether aerobic fitness is associated with fewer cognitive deficits and negative symptoms, as well as with increased GMVs and WMVs in individuals with schizophrenia in a cross-sectional study. 111 participants at two centers underwent evaluations of negative symptoms, cognitive function, and aerobic endurance, and 69 underwent further structural magnetic resonance imaging. In parahippocampal and other cerebellar regions, the main finding was a positive correlation of aerobic fitness with right hippocampal GMV and WMVs. We found no evidence for an association of aerobic fitness with cognitive function and negative symptoms.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35918344


Longitudinal assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass of young healthy adults during COVID-19 pandemic.

Two subgroups of participants were identified by cluster analysis: those who had reduced peak Vu0307O 2 at the 1-year follow-up and those who had retained peak Vu0307O 2 at the 1-year follow-up and those whose peak Vu0307O 2 was retained. Participants with reduced peak V0u0307O 2 also showed reduced heart rate kinetics, reduced peak O2 pulse, and lower peak work rate after 1 year of the pandemic, although the group of participants with steady peak V007O 2 remained stable. Regardless of the changes in peak V0203O 2, both subgroups of participants gained body mass, which was negatively related to participants' level of self-reported physical activity during the pandemic, while others gained weight, but both groups of participants gained body mass, which could have an effect on long-lived life if left untreated.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35916663


Root-secreted bitter triterpene modulates the rhizosphere microbiota to improve plant fitness.

Underground microbial ecosystems have a major effect on plant health 1-5. Here we present two Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion proteins involved in the transport of their respective cucurbitacins, a reaction co-regulated with cucurbitacin biosynthesis. We also show that the transfer of cucurbitacin B from the roots of melon to the soil modifies the rhizosphere microbiome by selectively enriching for two bacterial species, Enterobacter and Bacillus, leading to a strong resistance against Fusarium oxysporum, a soil-borne wilt fungal pathogen.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35915145


4 Fitness Dependent Optimizer for IoT Healthcare using Adapted Parameters: A Case Study Implementation

In the original research, Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization were tested and compared to FDO as Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization. We may conclude that FDO outperforms the other methods reported by using these FDO experimental results. This chapter has two main objectives: first, the introduction of FDO will be shown step by step so that readers can more easily comprehend the algorithm and use FDO to solve real-world applications quickly. Large amounts of data can be found in the IoT health service framework's second issue, which discusses how to tweak the FDO settings to make the meta-heuristic evolutionary algorithm more effective in the IoT health service framework. Ultimately, the goal of this chapter's update is to bring forth efficient IoT healthcare solutions for reasoning out real-world optimization, aggregation, forecast, segmentation, and other technological issues.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR526553


Compensatory mutations reducing the fitness cost of plasmid carriage occur in plant rhizosphere communities

Plasmids facilitate bacterial evolution by transferring ecologically important functions between lineages, but getting a plasmid can often lead to a fitness deficit to the host cell. plasmid preservation in simplified laboratory media from numerous plasmid-host associations is encouraged by accelerated plasmid carriage mutations, which reduce the cost of plasmid carriage. In Pseudomonas fluorescens' plant rhizosphere, we show a significant fitness expense for carrying the large conjugative plasmid pQBR103. Compensatory mutations play a role in plasmid survival in bacterial populations living in diverse microbial communities in their natural habitat.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR525952


A pilot tennis program for training fitness and social behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

Background This pilot study was designed to determine the success of a tennis-training program for people with autism spectrum disorder. Methods The program consisted of 12 lessons delivered over a 6-week time frame that combined tennis-specific skills with targeted autism skills. Conclusions The results of this report show that tennis training can be a vital component of autism therapeutic services, enabling participants to develop motor and social skills in a fun, recreational setting.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35860969


Horizontal transfer of bacteriocin biosynthesis genes requires metabolic adaptation to improve compound production and cellular fitness

Compound production in heterologous hosts has been shown by research, and several BGC recipients report initial low compound amounts or reduced growth rates. We investigated whether transfer of BGCs between closely related S. aureus strains could be immediate or requires extensive metabolic adaptation, in which case, we investigated the intra-species exchange of a BGC encoding the ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide micrococcin P1. After prolonged cultivation by adaptive mutation, we discovered that purchasing the BGC by S. aurus RN4220 enabled immediate MP1 production but also put a metabolic burden, which was relieved by increased growth by adaptive mutation. To investigate this phenomenon, we used a multiomics approach, and we discovered adaptive evolution to select strains with elevated levels of compound production and metabolic fitness. Our results show that BCG acquisition requires genetic and metabolic predispositions that allow for the integration of bacteriocin production into the cellular metabolism. Importance Human microbiomes are strongly linked to human health and disease. Bacteriocin-producing commensals are able to displace pathogens from microbial populations, meaning that their targeted introduction of microbiomes could prevent pathogen colonization and infection. Our research provides insight into the metabolic challenges associated with the manufacture of the bacteriocin micrococcin P1 as well as evolutionary strategies that enhance cellular fitness in the context of production. Most likely metabolic adaptations are broadly relevant for bacteriocin manufacturers and should be considered for future development of highly effective microbiome editing tools.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR525177


Relationship between the severity of persistent symptoms, physical fitness, and cardiopulmonary function in post-COVID-19 condition. A population-based analysis.

The aim of this research was to determine the connection between physical fitness, cardiopulmonary function, and patient-reported severity of symptoms in people with post-COVID-19 disease. We reviewed ambulatory patients with post-COVID-19 disease who had a chronic symptomatic period lasting more than 12 weeks from the onset of symptoms but not been hospitalized for acute COVID-19. Greater physical fitness and cardiopulmonary function were linked to reduced incidence of symptoms in people with post-COVID-19 illness, according to the study, which revealed that people with reduced respiratory mobility and cardiopulmonary function were related to reduced incidence of symptoms in people with post-COVID-19 disease. In conclusion, preserving improved cardiopulmonary and physical condition throughout the course of the disease, even in mild cases, was correlated to a reduced incidence of symptoms in non-hospitalized people with post-COVID-19 disease. Exercise and physical fitness are likely pre- and post-COVID-19 countermeasures that may help reduce the incidence of acute infection but also of chronic infections and prognosis.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35904700

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions