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Executive Function - PubMed

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Last Updated: 27 July 2022

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Similar Loss of Executive Function Performance after Exposure to Low (10 cGy) Doses of Single (4He) Ions and the Multi-Ion GCRSim Beam.

During International Space Station missions, astronauts can rely on Mission Control to help solve difficult problems, but astronauts will have to act more autonomously during long-duration space missions, so astronauts will have to perform executive functions during deep space missions. Multiple studies have shown that exposure to space radiation has decreased executive function, leading to decreased executive function results. However, these studies have used single ions, to date, although astronauts will be exposed to a complex blend of ion species and energies within the space-radiation spectrum. The current research has discovered the effect that isodoses of He ions or the simplified 6-ion-galactic simulation beams had on male Wistar rats' performance in executive function tasks, attentional task switching, and unconstrained cognitive flexibility. The SD performance decrements in the GCRSim-irradiated rats were similar to those in He-irradiated rats. While the sham-treated rats completed the second ATSET task in 30 percent less time than they did the pre-screen ATSET test, the space-radiation-exposed rats took longer to do so, according to a Practice effect study. These findings point to a reduced ability to use transitive inference from "similar" problems to solve problems that have not been encountered before, if similar changes occur in astronauts.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1667/RADE-22-0002.1


A network meta-analysis comparing the effects of exercise and cognitive training on executive function in young and middle-aged adults.

Physical fitness with and without cognitive training has the ability to enhance executive function, but the actual results are uncertain. This network meta-analysis compares the effectiveness of various exercise and cognitive training styles and their combination on executive function in young and middle-aged adults. PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus were all searching for experimental studies that compared pre-test and/or working memory between one or two intervention groups and a control group. The greatest benefits for working memory were combined exercise and memory training, according to the authors, whereas training a single executive function was the most effective for inhibitory control. Both executive function outcomes evaluated, the success of working memory preparation and coordination exercise came in second and third place. Executive function gains are even higher as a result of exercise and cognitive training.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2022.2099765


Maintained and Delayed Benefits of Executive Function Training and Low-Intensity Aerobic Exercise Over a 3.5-Year Period in Older Adults.

This is a follow-up to our previous research, with the intent of finding whether older adults are able to maintain or report delayed cognitive and psychological benefits of executive function training and physical exercise over a period of 3. 5 years on average. The findings provide some new insights into the cognitive training program, as well as the possibility of continuing involvement in long-term cognitive improvement in healthy older adults.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.905886


Variability of Reaction Time as a Marker of Executive Function Impairments in Fibromyalgia.

Patients with fibromyalgia also experience cognitive difficulties in addition to persistent chronic pain and anxiety. This report looked at executive roles in fibromyalgia via a Go/No-Go project. Fifty-two female fibromyalgia patients and twenty-eight healthy controls were included. Patients with a lower hit rate, elevated M RT, and tau than controls were all present. In addition, patients had a larger decrease in the hit rate after the change of task rule. Although the greater decrease in hit rate as a result of the change in task code indicates poor cognitive flexibility, the absence of any difference in false alarm rates suggests intact response inhibition. Increased tau in fibromyalgia causes greater job turnover and more frequent temporary lapses of focus. For the first time, this research showed that RT variability indices, particularly those derived from the ex-Gaussian function, could be used to supplement speed and accuracy measurements in the assessment of executive function impairments in fibromyalgia.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/1821684


Biological, behavioral, and social correlates of executive function in low-income preschoolers: Insights from the perspective of the networks.

When considering such variables as an integrated and non-linear framework, behavioral, biological, and social correlates may be related to the correlation between executive function and physical fitness. According to a network perspective, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships between EF, PA, and related variables in low-income preschoolers. Our findings indicated that EF was positively linked to age, child's primary caregivers, moderate PA, and CRF. Future interventions aimed at raising moderate PA, with special attention to preterm children.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/21622965.2022.2095912


Linking early maternal input during shared reading to later theory of mind through receptive language and executive function: A within- and between-family design.

This research investigated whether early maternal participation in shared reading predicted a later model of mind understanding by children's receptive language and executive function. Both EF and ToM development are important for children's language skills, so maternal involvement plays a huge part in the development of children's language skills. This relationship raises the possibility of a cognitive cascade in which maternal involvement during shared reading supports ToM growth sequentially through receptive language and EF. To account for age inequity, the siblings were measured at approximately 5 years old, EF, and ToM to determine age differences. Both direct routes from shared reading to children's ToM were discovered by two indirect pathways, one through receptive language alone and another that proceeded sequentially through receptive words and EF. During the preschool period, these results highlight the importance of maternal involvement in early shared reading for cognitive growth and predict a transition from maternal input to ToM via vocabulary and EF.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2022.105469


Parental Rejection and School-aged Children's Externalizing Behavior Problems in China: The Roles of Executive Function and Callous-unemotional Traits.

The results revealed that EF mediated the link between parental rejection and externalizing behaviour difficulties. In addition, the negative correlation between EF and externalizing behavior issues was limited by CU characteristics; in particular, the combination of higher-level CU characteristics and lower-level EF predicted more externalizing behavior difficulties.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-022-01397-6


Effects of Group-Play Moderate to Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity Intervention on Executive Function and Motor Skills in 4- to 5-Year-Old Preschoolers: A Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

The aim of this research is to determine the effects of group-play intervention on executive functioning in preschoolers. The intervention group was three times a week, when the control group in preschool continued as normal. In addition, three facets of EF were measured separately before, during, and after the intervention: inhibitory control was determined using the silly sound Stroop task, working memory was tested using the empty house task, and change was assessed using the dimensional change card sorting method. Although both groups showed an increasing trend in terms of motor skills and EF during the intervention, the intervention group's increasing numbers were significantly higher than the control group. In comparison to motor skills in preschoolers, the present study found that group-play interventions has positive impacts on certain aspects of EF and motor skills.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.847785


Passive exercise increases cerebral blood flow velocity and supports a postexercise executive function benefit.

Literature has shown that a single-bout of exercise involving volitional muscle activation enhances executive function, and that an increase in cerebral blood flow may have contributed to this benefit. Participants in a procedural validation study used a cycle ergometer to achieve separate 20-min active and passive exercise conditions as well as a non-exercise control condition. Passive exercise, according to Electromyography, did not boost agonist muscle activation or raise ventilation or gas exchange variables. Throughout passive exercise, active and passive exercise, as well as transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings, raised CBF throughout the middle cerebral artery, according to a large experiment participants. According to the results, passive exercise 'boosts' an oculomotor-based measure of executive function, which contributes to increased CBF mediates this benefit.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.14132


Influence of parental play on Taiwanese 3-year-olds' executive function: Through the path of motor skills.

In 2,164 families, the links between mother-child and father-child relationship, as well as the National Longitudinal Study of Child Development and Care Database in Taiwan were investigated in 2,164 families. In addition, both mother-child and father-child activities contributed to children's EF; however, the mediating effect of child motor skills was more relevant for father-child play. This research not only suggests a potential distinct and complementary role for fathers in young children's EF growth, but also illustrates a unique mediating effect of motor skills in the transition from parent-child play to child EF.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0001006

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions