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Executive Function - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 27 September 2022

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Role of Appetite Hormone Dysregulation in Symptomology and Executive Function in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Objectives The evidence points to an association of insulin and leptin with attention and executive function. The roles of dysregulated appetite hormones, including insulin and leptin, in the pathomechanisms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related cognitive impairment remain unclear. Methods In total, 50 adolescents with ADHD were registered and sex-matched with 50 with 50 typical developing controls, with 50 sex-matched. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was used to determine executive function. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was used to determine executive function. ADHD children with ADHD had higher levels of insulin and leptin than those in the control group, according to standardized linear models with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and medications. Affective hormone dysregulation was attributed to the symptomology and executive functioning in adolescents with ADHD, according to the study. Our findings may encourage researchers to investigate the role of appetite hormone dysregulation in ADHD pathogenesis.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36153673


Ecological validity of executive function tests in predicting driving performance.

This report sought to investigate the reliability of a large number of commonly used EF tests, many from well-known EF assessment approaches, in predicting driving ability in line with increasing attention to neuropsychological assessment and intervention methods. For the EF analysis, selected tests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Behavioral Analysis of the Dysexecutive Syndrome were used, as well as a computerized Stroop measurement. We used a simulation driving exam that included 14 key aspects of driving skills for the driving assessment. In addition, the EF's recommendations forecast the driving ability over and above the results of previous driving experience and psychological factors. These results support evidence for the ecological reliability of the EF tests in predicting driving results.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36152341


Sleep duration is associated with Caudate volume and executive function.

The caudate volume was found to be related to longer habitual sleep duration in older adults, according to previous studies. In the younger population, however, the connection between sleep duration and caudate volume is uncertain. Sleep duration was shown to have a significant correlation with executive function success. Sleep duration is shown to both caudate volume and executive function, according to our findings. It has also been reported that there are some external controls that modulate executive function, which can minimize the effect of the caudate-sleep relationship's effect on executive function.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36136201


Does Executive Function Training Impact on Communication? A Randomized Controlled tDCS Study on Post-Stroke Aphasia.

Executive functions in language recovery have recently been deemed "essential" in aphasia recovery, particularly for people with severe aphasia. In a multi-blind crossover scheme, twenty twenty-year PWSA members underwent ten days of transcranial direct current stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. For the first time, this data has shown that tDCS over the right DLPFC as well as executive education raises functional communication in severe aphasia.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36139001


Studying hot executive function in infancy: Insights from research on emotional development.

Despite widespread overlap in study on executive function and emotion control, a uniting theory that informs future avenues of study is lacking, despite clear correlations among executive function and emotion regulation. This paper links current interest in hot executive positions to refer to early executive studies on executive function and emotion. Because it unites the study emotion and executive function, Hot executive function lends itself as a useful tool in this endeavor. When investigating infant executive job and emotion empirical research, we provide a perspective that refines hot executive function within popular emotion theories.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36137464


Development of executive function-relevant skills is related to both neural structure and function in infants.

Infants' behaviour on a flexible learning task increased throughout growth, and task success is highly correlated with both neural structure and neural function, according to this article. Using magnetoencephalography, we investigated an important neural function of speech processing by identifying the mismatch response to speech comparisons. At 11 months, bilingual infants demonstrated flexible learning in a task demanding executive function skills at 11 months, but not at 7 months Infants' myelin density at 7 months was highly predictive of their academic achievement in the flexible learning task at 11 months of age. This study is also linked to concurrent neural processing of speech at both ages.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36114705


Inflammation, Executive Function, and Adiposity in Children With or at Risk for Obesity: A Pilot Study.

Objective Obesity is a result of executive function inequiencies throughout life. EF deficits have been attributed to higher body mass index, obesity prevalence, and poorer adherence and obesity outcomes in obesity treatment. Neuroinflammation in obesity has emerged as a potential path to later cognitive decline in EF adult literature, according to adult literature. However, pediatric obesity research has yet to establish correlations between peripheral inflammation and EF. To determine results-based EF, the NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery was used to measure results-based EF. Linear regression and Hayes' PROCESS Model 4 were used to determine relationships between adiposity and inflammation, and EF, as well as whether adiposity can influence inflammation and EF by its effect on inflammation. Positive relationships were found between adiposity and inflammation, as well as negative to null associations were found between inflammation and EF. Medium- indirect effects of adiposity on EF via inflammation were found in medium.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36111823


Family Socioeconomic Status and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool Children: The Mediating Role of Executive Function.

The objective of this research was to investigate the connection between family socioeconomic status and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in preschool children and executive function media presence. The Child Executive Functioning Inventory, the Self-Reported Family Situation Questionnaire, and the Child Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to poll 361 parents of preschool children. To some extent, this supports the family stress model and family investment model of the link between SES and child development, as well as a reference for early prevention of ADHD in children with low SES.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36141880


Executive Function Touch battery: Translation and preliminary measure validation for Pakistani preschoolers.

The present research looked at the possibility and preliminary psychometric properties of a performance-based computerized EF measure, EF Touch, to be used with Pakistani preschoolers, keeping in mind the importance of assessing early executive function skills in low and middle-income countries. Before data collection from the 120 preschoolers aged between 3. 1 to 5. 9 years, subject matter experts performed an investigation of the text and Urdu translation of verbal instruction EF Touch battery was carried out by subject matter experts before data collection was collected from the 120 preschoolers aged from 3. 1 to 5. 9 years. For the initial assessment of tasks and item parameters, item response theory models were used.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36107940


Executive function measurement in urban schools: Exploring links between performance-based metrics and teacher ratings.

The current report examines gaps in executive performance assessment to better understand whether behavior rating scales developed by teachers capture differences between achievement-based measures in an attempt to harmonize how executive duties are assessed in under-represented contexts. The findings show that BASC2 EF in its original form may be a good match for certain populations in relation to computerized performance-based studies and the teacher rating scales, but that there is no such axis for the new high-poverty samples. In addition, post-hoc studies have shown that only including BASC2 EF items also in BASC3 EF or using BASC3 EF is the most effective treatment for high-poverty populations. BASC3 EF seems to be more able to capture various aspects of performance-driven tasks, while BASC2 EF captures overall executive functioning better than individual tasks.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36106899

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions