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Epidemic - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 25 June 2022

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Mycoplasma pneumoniae triggers pneumonia epidemic in autumn and winter in Beijing: a multicentre, population-based epidemiological study between 2015 and 2020.

ABSTRACT This paper is designed to investigate the characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae epidemics in Beijing, China. Patients with acute respiratory tract infection (Acute respiratory tract infection) were admitted from 35 sentinel hospitals in Beijing, 2015-2020. The domain V of 23s rRNA gene was sequenced to find macrolide-resistant mutations. There were a total of 41,677 ARTI samples, with an MP positive rate of 6. 1 percent. The rise in the MP detection rate coincident with the increase in the number of patients with pneumonia in the 35 sentinel hospitals. In 27. 1% of MP-positive patients, one or two respiratory pathogens were co-detected. About 99% of macrolide-resistant MP infections, the A2063G mutation was responsible for 99. 0% of macrolide-resistant MP infections. The Beijing MP epidemic began in August and January with a notable high macrolide resistance rate. In Beijing, an MP is one of the key contributors to the pneumonia epidemic in autumn and winter.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35582916


Genomic dissection of the microevolution of Australian epidemic Bordetella pertussis .

ABSTRACT whooping cough is a common respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The Australian B. pertussis population was discovered to be mainly ptxP3 strains carrying different fim3 alleles, with the ptxP3-fim3A genotype increasing more than ptxP3-fim3B. The population dynamics of Australian B. pertussis have been determined by both hard and soft selective sweeps through vaccine selection pressures. According to a relative risk analysis, B. pertussis lineage emerged as the first 1. 5 years, it was more likely to spread around the first two years. The growth of ptxP3 strains was also associated with the replacement of the type III secrecI1 with bscI3 by phylogenetic investigation, according to Phylogenetic analysis. BscI3 has reduced T3SS coverage, and it may be able to minimize immune detection of B. pertussis.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35543519


Persistence of an epidemic cluster of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in multiple geographic regions in China and the emergence of a 5-flucytosine resistant clone.

R. mucilaginosa has been recorded from various hospitals and regions throughout China's national surveillance program. Unknown molecular epidemiology of invasive infections related to R. mucilaginosa and their resistance profiles to antifungals was unknown at this time. Five epidemic MT species were found in 45. 9% of clinical strains, as well as 27 sporadic MT types, according to 15 tandem repeat loci. Due to low pairwise distance, single nucleotide variants from the whole genome sequence data contributed to the clustering of these epidemic strains. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of SNVs from these clinical strains, as well as environmental and animal strains, showed that the closely related epidemic cluster strains may be opportunistic, zoonotic pathogens. Also, molecular results pointed to a potential clonal transmission of pan echinocandins-azoles-5-flucytosine resistant R. mucilaginosa strains in hospital H01. R. mucilaginosa is a multi-drug resistant pathogen with the ability to cause nosocomial infection, according to our analysis.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35343400


Using an age-structured COVID-19 epidemic model and data to model virulence evolution in Wuhan, China.

COVID-19, a single-stranded RNA virus, is a disease caused by infection with the virus 2019-nCoV, a single-stranded RNA virus. We present a new age structured epidemic model to represent virulence evolution in this paper. Scenario I rather than Scenario II is consistent with the results from 'Fangcang' hospitals,' so the results are consistent with those from 'Fangcang' hospitals. In Wuhan, the transmission pattern of COVID-19 is determined to be Scenario I rather than Scenario II rather than Scenario II. According to the Theoretical report, shortening the value of L in Scenario I can result in a significant selective pressure on the evolution of 2019-nCoV.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/34994299


Explorations of the Role of Digital Technology in HIV-Related Implementation Research: Case Comparisons of Five Ending the HIV Epidemic Supplement Awards.

Introduction The use of digital technology in HIV-related interventions and implementation plans is on the rise. If the use of technology specifically improve patient outcomes or as part of the overall strategy to implement interventions has important implications. In this article, we examine five case studies of projects that use technology in HIV-related implementation studies to identify and explain challenges specific to technology-based implementation study of study design, result measurement, and equity. Ending the HIV Epidemic in the United States is being embraced by a variety of deployment strategies to raise Ending the HIV Epidemic. Discussion Technology can play a variety of roles in HIV-related research studies, including acting as the intervention, being leveraged within implementation plans, or both.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35703775


Addressing Racism's Role in the US HIV Epidemic: Qualitative Findings From Three Ending the HIV Epidemic Prevention Projects.

Background In the United States, racist socioeconomic, political, and economic structures are the root of HIV disparities among minoritized populations. However, within HIV implementation science, there is little empirical evidence on how to effectively combat racism. Racism and White supremacy are two main contributors to the Ending the HIV Epidemic project's success, according to this article, who also details ways to integrate anti-racism into HIV education. Although racism was not a primary target of included studies, discussions of race and racial discrimination emerged as the most important research findings from both studies. EHE's success was criticized by participants from various stakeholder groups and EHE locales, who described bigotry as a threat to the EHE's success. We have compiled a series of articles to assist investigators in determining the extent to which they are taking concrete steps to combat racism in order to increase the adoption, and real-world consequences of EHE interventions for people of color. To this end, we have a series of recommendations to help investigators determine whether or not they are taking concrete steps to reduce the adoption, deployment, and real-world effects of EHE interventions for people of color.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35703755


Profile of the Portfolio of NIH-Funded HIV Implementation Research Projects to Inform Ending the HIV Epidemic Strategies.

Background Information About the U. S. government developed an initiative to end the HIV epidemic in the United States by the year 2030. The National Institutes of Health has funded implementation research studies by addressing the four pillars and encouraging investigators to collaborate with local partners and Health and Human Services grantees in 57 priority jurisdictions in support of its research mission. Methods This paper reviewed results from the NIH-funded CFAR/ARC supplement programs from 2019 to 2021. To determine implementation results, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research Framework was the most used to investigate implementation determinants, followed by the RE-AIM framework and Proctor model to analyze implementation results. Conclusion Monitoring the results resulting from individual studies' findings is crucial to understanding the responses to EHE, and knowing them is key to understanding the response to EHE, and understanding these findings requires systematic and ongoing effort to ensure that generalizable implementation knowledge emerges.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35703752


Role of NIH in the Ending the HIV Epidemic in the US Initiative: Research Improving Practice.

Abstract In 2019, about 1. 2 million people were living with HIV, and an estimated 34,800 new HIV infections occurred in the United States. The HIV Epidemic in the United States has been based on four decades of federal domestic and international responses to HIV/AIDS. The National Institutes for Health (NIHS), the world's largest health research organization, invests extensive basic, scientific, translational, and implementation HIV studies that is vital to achieving HIV epidemic control. Evidence-based HIV interventions in real-world settings is required to demonstrate the most effective ways to promote the adoption, and integration of evidence-based HIV services in real-world settings. This article discusses recent NIH research efforts to reduce and identify new HIV infections, improve treatment services, and outcomes among people with HIV, and how to correctly respond to HIV epidemics in the United States.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35703750


The molecular epidemiology, genotyping, and clinical manifestation of prevalent Adenovirus infection during the epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, South of Iran

Methods The study included the affected patients from two nearby keratoconjunctivitis epidemics. In addition, partial Hexon genes from 11 adenovirus positive samples were amplified and submitted to sanger sequencing. Results of the 153 patients, 92 were males and 47 percent were females, and 47 cases had a history of eye disease in the family or colleagues. Conclusions Adenovirus was the primary cause of keratoconjuctivitis, according to the study, and HAdV-D8 was the most common genotype in the area. There were some clinical signs associated with Adenovirus infection of the conjunctiva.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR509819

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions